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Before we discuss war assets, which have been EEH's most successful area of research to date, let's enjoy learning a thing or two about one of the many pillars of culture, basket weaving. For as much money as Messrs. Hitler, Mussolini, et al. stole from us during the wars, life is not really about money, is it?
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For several years, the controversy over Switzerland's role in World War II raged in the media, among thousands of possible claimants and their attorneys, and between nations. Questions have been raised concerning dormant Swiss bank accounts, Nazi gold, and property confiscated and stolen during by the German Third Reich.
Beginning in September 1939, Hitler swiftly conquered country after country within Europe. By June 1941, Switzerland's neutrality became a beacon of hope. Increasingly severe restrictions and persecution of Jews caused many to search for safety. Thousands of Jews tried to hide themselves as well as their money in Switzerland.
As Jews reached Switzerland's borders they were turned away. It had become easy to recognize Jewish passports since Germany had begun affixing German Jewish passports with the letter "J" for "Jude" ("Jew" in German) in 1938. The Germans did this at Switzerland's request for an easier way to identify Jews coming to its borders.
In the summer of 1942, when the mass deportations had begun taking millions to their deaths in camps, Switzerland closed its borders completely to all refugees. Though contemporary views of this action question Switzerland's intentions, Switzerland was not the only nation to close their borders to Jews during the war and the United States and Great Britain are prime examples. However, it was Switzerland's wartime policies that had the biggest impact on those attempting to escape the Third Reich, because it was much more difficult to immigrate to Britain and the US than it was to immigrate to Switzerland, which is located in the centre of Europe and borders six countries.)
Nazi Gold and Loot
During the war, the Nazis stole gold, jewellery, homes, factories, artwork, and other valuables from the millions of Jews they murdered. They also looted (stole) large amounts of valuables from non-Jews in the countries they occupied (France, Belgium, Poland, Lithuania, etc.). The Germans needed a way to place these commodities in the international market so that they could use the money they received in exchange for their war effort. The Swiss helped facilitate the exchange in addition to holding Nazi accounts. Many speculate that some of the gold that the Swiss accepted were the dental gold and wedding rings taken from Jews at the camps. If a Jewish or Belgian homeowner was killed, died in battle or bombing, or disappeared, the German government simply took the home.
Many Jews never physically attempted to reach Switzerland, but attempted to protect their money by opening Swiss bank accounts. Many Jews who opened these accounts perished in the Holocaust.
There are many survivors who remembered that their parents or uncles opened accounts, but they didn't know the name of the bank, the account numbers nor have any paperwork concerning the accounts, so they were turned away from the banks after the war. Far more knew nothing at all about their relatives' monetary holdings; it was safer not to tell anyone that one had broken German law by taking money out of the country. Some Swiss banks requested death certificates of the account holder before they would allow the survivors to access the money, even in cases where the survivors had the secret account numbers and exact address of the bank. This was a completely unreasonable request since millions were mass murdered in the Holocaust with no official record of their deaths. The banks obtained legal authority for their refusals to release or confirm information, based upon Swiss laws which guaranteed account holders strict secrecy.
Jews weren't the only persons who had Swiss bank accounts. Many Europeans maintained Swiss accounts to avoid income, inheritance and wealth taxes. Swiss banking privacy laws gave this protection.
For several decades after the war, individual survivors petitioned and requested information about these accounts with little to no success. The vast majority of claimants, over time, simply gave up. In 1974, the Swiss announced that they found 4.68 million Swiss francs in dormant accounts. This money was divided between two Swiss relief agencies and to the Polish and Hungarian governments. Jewish experts claimed this was only a small fraction of the money in the accounts.
In 1996, U.S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato (R-NY) brought the subject of the dormant accounts to the U.S. government's attention, and hearings were started to unearth the truth about the survivors' claims. Pressure from the United States has angered the Swiss, who feel that this is an attack upon their reputation for the benefit of U.S. banking agencies.
The questions concerning the morality of the Swiss during the war came into the public limelight when a night security guard at a Swiss bank noticed on January 14, 1997 a large bin of old documents pertaining to Nazi and wartime accounts waiting to be shredded. The Swiss claim that these were of no interest to the hearings.
On January 29, 1997, the US Congress considered boycotting Swiss banks. (A "Washington insider" remarked that Switzerland would never believe the threat, due to the $Billions held in secret numbered Swiss accounts belonging to US congressmen, cabinet members, and other corrupt US officials.) Eight days later, three Swiss banks announced that they would create a humanitarian fund of 100 million Swiss francs (U.S. $70 million). Although this fund was criticized as being much too small, and not going to the depositors' families, there was no boycott. There were accusations that some members of the Senate committee had accepted "gratuities" from a fund with relations to the banks, for calling off the boycott.
Since the export of money out of Germany and Austria was a heavily punished crime, and the overwhelming majority of the Jews who opened Swiss bank accounts died during the war, there are no accurate figures of the total amount of money Jews placed within the Swiss banks. Jewish organisations believe there could be tens of $Billions, while the Swiss have only disclosed several Million. Since most Jews residing in Europe in 1940 had been killed by the end of the war in 1945, in most families both the father and mother and all their children, and often all the siblings of the father and mother, were dead. If the father in such a family had a Swiss account, his closest surviving family member would be a cousin, and very few cousins come forward to make claims in 1997 when claims began to be allowed. Those cousins that were still living usually did not know about the accounts.
But what about the survivors of the Holocaust whose families' entire fortunes were stored in Swiss accounts? On July 23, 1997, the Swiss produced a list of dormant accounts that is accessible to the public. The list con-tains names, and often the pre-1945 depositors' addres-ses, but no money amounts. Any person with a valid claim on these accounts may go through an accounting firm, and then an international panel, by which it will be decided whether or not there is sufficient written evidence, including sufficient genealogical documenta-tion, to support such claim.
HISTORY, CULTURE, & FAMILY
EEH believes that heritage has 3 components: history, culture, and family. Only through understanding these three components can the inheritance of money from one's relatives have true meaning.
World War I "Assets" and European Emigrant Heritage
Assets from WWI recovered by EEH consist of bank accounts, insurance policies, stocks & bonds (including government issued), real property (land & its improvements), mining rights, and mining dividends. While not as frequent as WW II asset recovery, these recovered assets had totaled over £7,000,000 by 2010.
Lest we overemphasize the pecuniary losses sustained in WWI, "the Great War" as it was called until circa 1942, did indeed cause hundreds of £Billions in property damage and ruined lives and work careers. Crops destroyed to deprive advancing armies of sustenance, and several years of no crops planted, alone caused great suffering in Europe.
The devastation by death, injuries, and war-caused diseases, was much greater than all the economic losses.
The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914
by T. Christianson (2013)
There are many things that can be done while one is asleep. Bellini wrote a delightful opera about somnambulism. However it is difficult to share the same sense of fascination or repose even a century after the outbreak of the Great War. Somehow it defies any standard of human sensitivity to allude to the acts and omissions leading to the millions of slaughtered men and boys at the hands of the greediest financial and industrial elites known to recorded history as the result of "sleepwalking".
Consider the most peculiar omission in this prize-winning story written by a young man from the Dominions: that the author has managed to write over 500 pages about the Great War without scarcely more than ten pages about the British Empire-- then the undisputed world power (not unlike its North American cousin today). After the discrediting of Mr Tony Blair for his willful deceits to promote the recent Gulf Wars, skepticism ought to be warranted when examining the statements and acts of HM Government when it comes to wars...
The best way to suppress uncomfortable or disagreeable facts is to ignore them. The Sleepwalkers might be viewed as a naive piece of work from a young scholar. However such naiveté or careless omission of the world's great power in 1914 has been amply rewarded-- the author recently received a royal (Regius) chair in history at Cambridge-- as did most of the official historians of the Milner Group...
Great Britain's consistent foreign policy principle since the French Revolution is to control the seas to obtain cheap (or free) raw materials (including labour) throughout the world. This was called first colonialism, then imperialism, and is now called the global economy. Workers are exploited with $1 per hour wages in sweatshops, plantations, and mines, forcing them to live in poverty. The great powers maintain puppet regimes ("allies") to keep the materials extractions cheap, and to prevent local minimum wage laws.
The Sleepwalkers is written like a plenary indulgence granted by the unnamed Anglo-American elite that has profited from every major European war in the 20th century to those whom it would recruit again in its "association of helpers" to bomb, invade, and occupy Middle Eastern and other countries-- witting instruments of neo-imperialism (aka globalisation)...
By ignoring any serious discussion of British Empire, its ruling elite, or the global economic and psychological warfare that was waged by it in the years between 1871 and 1914, this book shows that it is the author who was probably sleepwalking, not the European imperialists (today called the financial elite or the "1%-ers,") who together with Great Britain, through their puppet politicians, wantonly slaughtered more than 4 million people for their personal profit in the Great War. Hundreds of thousands in the bloody carnage were women and children... By such propaganda as is used in this book, the instigators of current and future wars may be exonerated because the wars resulted from "errors," "ignorance," or "sleepwalking..." George Bush's claim that he was given "mistaken intelligence" that Iraq did 9/11, and that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction, is an example of this whitewash...
↑ The Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) files in a room of the Neuschwanstein Castle. A large Nazi loot cache was found in unexplored tunnels under the castle.
A genealogist must know town, city, & country name changes and border changes. If a funeral home record says that a person was born "1880 Russia," there is a good chance that his birthplace today is in Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, etc. This is because in 1880 the Russian Empire contained those places. If a baptismal record states that someone was born in Breslau, Germany, beware! you will find Breslau only on a pre-1945 map; it is today the city of Wrocław, Poland.
Example At the time of Josef Hannum's birth prior to World War I, many European country names and borders were different. In order to discover the names of Josef's siblings these differences must be taken into account. The largest nation on the eve of the First World War was Austria-Hungary, a multinational state composed of Austrians, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, Slovenians, Romanians and Italians:
If our task were to expand Josef's family tree further we would begin with Josef's four grandparents, and an older map:
Furthermore, genealogical research in Europe requires a town name, not just a province or country, to find records of birth, marriage, death, etc.
Often several places have the same name. For example, 92 towns in present-day Germany are called Steinbach. In English, München is called Munich; Köln is called Cologne.
For identifying and locating a town from Prussia that is currently part of Poland, the Kartenmeister Website is a very helpful database of 103,748 locations east of the Oder and Neisse Rivers, limited by the furthest borders of the eastern provinces in Spring 1918. Included are the following provinces: Eastprussia including Memel, Westprussia, Brandenburg, Posen, Pomerania, and Silesia. Data returned by this database includes the German and Polish names, and the longitude & latitude.
Alsace-Lorraine Town Names
Below is a partial list of German names for towns in the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine during the German occupations of 1870-1918 and 1940-1944, when Alsace was annexed to Germany.
Example: Jean Belemy is a common name in these two provinces, so it will be important to know that the Jean Belemy who gives his place of birth as Erlenbach may be the same as the one who earlier gave his place of birth as Albé.
Urbach a.d. Breusch
Urbach (bei Kayersberg)
↑ Presentation of Frankenholtz Case resolution to Foreign Office on 16 Jun 2011
-- a resolution 8 years in the making!
Women digging near damaged train tracks during the Siege of Stalingrad,
Russia, USSR -- 1942, World War II
↑ W. Russian Gubernias in Europe 1913
↑ Soviet Bloc countries & republics 1949-1989
Why would a place name be recorded incorrectly?
A very common problem in European research is that one just cannot find his GF (grandfather) in the records of the town in which the GF always claimed to have been born. GF's marriage record says that he was born in Milano, but his name does not appear on the Milano government's birth index!
Just as with surnames, American record-keepers didn’t usually change European place names intentionally. Most immigrants were illiterate, and probably didn’t know the name of the commune or Kreis or Viertel they had lived in. Those Italian and German terms are adminis-trative subdivisions comparable to counties and districts. If, somewhere along the line an official made a mistake copying this information on a form, GF couldn’t correct him.
Some immigrants left to avoid military conscription, debt or criminal charges; they might cover their tracks by giving vague or incorrect information about their origins. Thus if they were born in Drezden, they might say they were born in Berlin. A lack of familiarity with European geography also contributed to distorted place names being passed down to modern researchers in family papers, on passenger lists and passports, and in vital records. For example, the American family probably has no idea whether Prussia was a city, province, or country.
To sort out perplexing place names, use tools such as maps, atlases and gazetteers (geographical dictionaries that list places alphabetically, with descriptions of administrative divisions, population statistics and other information). GF may indeed have been born in Austria, but today the region is part of the country of Slovenia. See below example:
Between 1815 and 1921, Poland was divided into thirds, each controlled by a different empire:
So if GF said that his brother Karl "stayed in Russia after WWI," and you can't find Karl's death in Russian records, search Polish records.
The "Sole Child"
This girl was born in a large part of Poland that is now Ukraine. In 1919 she immigrated to Great Britain and worked as a maid for a wealthy family. She had one child, a son, by a man whose name we were never able to unearth. The son died in 2004 wealthy and intestate. Because the above girl is the sole child in this only photograph retained by her son, and because the location(s) of her birth and residence could not be discovered, this case remained unsolved for 14 years. In 2018 EEH went to Ukraine and researched the case in more depth. We determined that the girl had 6 siblings and 4 half siblings, all deceased. She wasn't a sole child after all! We located their living children & grandchildren in Ukraine and America and secured inheritances for them. These heirs knew nothing of the girl after she left Poland in 1919. Most of them had never heard her name before we visited them.
Poland after 1945:
Our Terry, far left, at Canadian
Borys Antonenko-Davydovych in 1st row, 3rd from the left; with other members of the Ukrainian Communist Party in 1922. In 1935 for refusing to russify Ukrainian dictionaries Stalin had him imprisoned until 1956, and then exiled to Central Asia, USSR.
Cultural heritage is made of many little pieces.
Attention and patience builds what has value and lasts.
So with the long-developed cottage craft of weaving:
Gerta (in stripes) shows her big find.
Lesya gets courage to ask for old library basement key
Minsk, Capital of Belarus, USSR, 1947 (after World War II)
James visits ten wrong Phillip Ryans in
County Tyrone! (unlisted phones)
Belarus 1992, showing Oblasti and Railroads:
US Library of Congress in Wash. DC holds a huge collection of historical maps, and also of US & foreign city directories. The latter are like telephone books but instead of phone numbers they contain each resident's name, wife's name, occupation, employer, and address. These books were published yearly in almost every city and town, in the US covering approx. 1840-1960. Since so many people cohabited with parents, siblings, adult children, etc, city directories are very helpful in genealogical research.
Below is Merrill City, WI 1925; note there were few office workers, as America made its own products then. Protective tariffs allowed the flourishing of local craftsmen and industries. No goods were allowed in from Asian sweatshops.
Balkan countries combined into Yugoslavia 1949 - 1990 ↓
Yugoslavia postage stamp 1982
The Immigrant's Song
by Tishani Doshi
The last tea
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