June 29 2011 4 29 /06 /June /2011 14:24

European Emigrant


Europäische Auswanderer Erbe
Европейское Эмиграционное Наследие
Skarby Europejskich Emigrantów

 European & American Unknown Family Property

145-157 St. John Street
 Clerkenwell, Islington

 London EC1V 4PY England

Telephone: +44 (0)845 273 3875      e-mail: hannum7@yahoo.com

Fax: +44 (0)870 762 3212       Website:  http://EuropeanEmigrantHeritage.eu/


Transport Directions:  (Please be Green!)  Our office is in Clerkenwell, Islington (formerly Finsbury), in the centre of London.  Take National Rail or Tube to Barbican Station, walk 2 minutes east on Charterhouse St., turn right on St. John St., walk 5 minutes north.

For the right bus or tram, London Transport:  http://www.tfl.gov.uk/



To mouse-click the links to the other pages of this website, 
go to CONTENTS (above right).

lf you have enlarged the text of this website for easier reading,
mouse-drag the long bar at the bottom of your screen from left to right 
to see CONTENTS.



The motto of our Company, European Emigrant Heritage:

All that is gold does not glitter,
    Not all those who wander are lost;
The old that is strong does not wither,
    Deep roots are not reached by the frost.

  From the ashes a fire shall be woken,
     A light from the shadows shall spring;
  Renewed shall be blade that was broken,
     The crownless again shall be king.

 -- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring



Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment
June 28 2011 3 28 /06 /June /2011 22:00

What does “European Emigrant Heritage” mean? 

Let's take each word separately:  

   Euro•pe•an  Adjective  A person who was born in, or whose family originates from, Europe.  [As opposed to a person whose family originates from Asia or Africa, for example.] 

Magnifying-glass.jpgTo enlarge text, click 3 ln button, google chrome,options-symbol---frilled-washer.jpgorwrench-copy-2.jpg above, click View, Zoom to 150%.  The CONTENTS list on the right side of this page has links to the other pages of this website.  If you have enlarged the text, view CONTENTS by dragging the long bar at the bottom of your screen from left to right. 

Die Familie Von Trapp     The continent of Europe presently contains the following countries: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbai- jan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, the Nether lands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom.

      Europe also has ethnicities, former nationalities, and cultures who do not presently have their own countries.  These include the following:

Basque, Bavarian, Bohemian, Catalan, Castillian, Celtic, Chechen, Dalmatian, Karilian, Kiev-Rus, Ladino, Moravian, Pilsner, Posner, Prussian, Ruthenian, Sardinian, Saxon, Scotch, Servian, Silesian, Slavonian, Tatar, Transylvanian, Tuscan, (and many others).   

   Em•i•grant  Noun  A person who leaves a country or region to live in another one : a person who emigrates ▪ Millions of emigrants departed from European ports between 1850 and 1920.  — compare IMMIGRANT, a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence.


    Her•i•tage  Noun  1.)  Property or other assets that have accrued to a particular family line, and which by law [should] descend from predecessor to living heirs.  2.)  The traditions, achievements, beliefs, crafts, etc., that are part of the history of a group or nation. ▪ a nation with a rich heritage of folklore ▪ His Polish heritage was very important to him.

Radekhiv-School-of-Art---Ukraine.P4238.jpg    Radekhiv-School-of-Art---Ukraine.P4223.jpg

    Thus European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) is exemplified by the following:

a.)  In 1943 a Polish woman died in a German labour camp.  She owned property that now should go to her closest living relatives, many second cousins living in Europe and the USA. 


b.)  A German soldier died in the Siege of Stalingrad.  22 years later, in 1964, his mother died in Frankfurt, leaving valuable coin and stamp collections, that now should go to the grandchildren of the soldier, who are living in Scotland.  [Photo:  Statues in Stalingrad centre which miraculously survived the siege.]

Handcart GM + 2 girls, 1903 Surrey, Eng.-copy-1c.)  In 1974 an Italian businessman died in Argentina, leaving bank accounts there and in Switzerland, that now should go to cousins in Italy and Dayton, Ohio, who have never met him.  Results:  Inheritances for everyone, a trip to Italy, and a family reunion attended by the Ohio cousins, some of their children and grandchildren, and many Italian relatives.  

d.)  A French-Canadian in Québec wished to learn of  the life, times, and culture of his paternal grandmother, who had lived in Marseille and gave her out-of-wedlock baby to a Catholic orphanage.  Prior to EEH's research, the grandmother's name and what became of her were unknown to the client and his family for 99 years.  This example of EEH's work did not involve the inheritance of money or property.  This is the non-profit side of EEH, involving the 2nd definition of Heritage, above:  the traditions, achievements, beliefs, etc. that comprise the history of (in this case) the grandmother.  The client was born in Canada and had never been to France.  He was elderly and living on a small pension, but had always wanted to know about his grandmother.  EEH undertook the research at no charge, and was able to provide him with documents, newspaper items, and photographs of his grandmother's life, and a photo album to arrange them in.  Included were documents and photos of his two half-uncles and their children, half-cousins he never knew he had.  (His grandmother had later married and had two sons.)  In the following year, two of his half-cousins visited him in Québec.Fahne Quebek


What does the profit side of EEH do?

Poirot-Suchet.jpg       The for profit side of European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) conducts research that locates property and/or other assets that are unknown and unclaimed by those legally entitled to them.  Then, through genealogical research (documentary research creating a family tree), EEH identifies and locates the persons who are legally entitled to the assets.  EEH then offers to claim and recover the property and/or assets in exchange for a contingent percentage fee.  If there is nothing recovered, there is no fee. 


What does the non-profit side of EEH do?

       European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) also operates a non-profit research and cultural exchange / cultural promotion service.  Through cultural, historical, ethnographic, and genealogical research, we aid in the preservation, understanding, and appreciation of old-time European culture:  the crafts, customs, community and family ties, and ethnic/national spirit that were prevalent before the industrial revolution.1.-School-of-Art-Intro-Page.jpg

       EEH's non-profit services are available to everyone, regardless of where they live or whether they have an unknown inheritance.  Clients pay nothing but may make a donation to the cause if they wish to do so.  Please contact us for further information if you have a specific need, request, or if you wish to help by donating time.  Also see the last page of this website: 16 ½. The CRAFTWORK INN.

       The remainder of this EEH Website Page 2. About Us deals with EEH's  profit side.

How did you find me?

       If we have contacted you regarding an inheritance, you are probably wondering how we found you.   Here are the stages:  I.)  EEH always begins its research by finding property or other assets which are unknown to and unclaimed by those entitled to them.  II).  EEH then performs genealogical research to identify and find the entitled persons.  Genealogical research discovers small pieces of information:  names, dates, and places of births, marriages, immigrations, deaths, burials, etc.  III.)  EEH then assembles all these pieces into a complete family tree, and contacts the living members who may be entitled to inherit.  When we began to research your family, we didn’t know your name or your parents’ names. 

Villefranche-de-Rouergue--Aveyron.jpg       EEH discovers names on many kinds of records.  For example, suppose the unknown property which EEH has discovered is accruing to you through your paternal grandmother (GM) from the death of her 2nd husband.  All we have to begin our genealogical research is GM's married name.  GM may have registered to vote with the Labour Party in 1936, or received a pension from the American government for her service during the World War of 1914-18.  These records may give her birthplace as Villefranche-de-Rouergue (pictured at right).  To trace your GM, we search the records of the several parish churches in and near the VdR Commune and follow the baptismal records of several girls baptised in the days following your GM's date of birth.  One of them should be your GM.  Thus we may obtain your GM's maiden SURNAME, allowing us to find her 1st marriage to your GF, and so on, eventually leading to you.  


       Genealogy involves many areas of study, including history, geography, ethnology, calligraphy, and photographic analysis.  To solve a recent case, it was necessary that we discovered that during World War II, while occupied by Nazi Germany, Villefranche housed a large 13th Waffen SS Handschar - 1st Croatian Division, consisting mainly of Bosnians.  Only this fact led to the military records identifying the deceased Frenchman’s father in Bosnia.  Bosnia at his date of birth was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (see Page 12. Historical Maps in this website)



How can you have found something when I know all my relatives and all my inheritances?

           The truth is that no one knows all their relatives.  For example, do you know the father of your paternal grandmother?  What town was this great-grandfather born in, and what were the names of his siblings, nieces, and nephews?  More importantly, if one of them died in Dover in 1974 with property, would you know of it?  

       Would your father’s cousins in Stuttgart or Cincinnati have found your father to give him his lawful share?  In the absence of family, how diligently would the local government have searched?



Who hires EEH?

       No one hires us.  We are a government licensed private company that investigates public and private records to find “errors, omissions, and frauds.” 


What kinds of cases do you handle?

       Here are some examples of the many types of unclaimed asset matters we handle:

European-Cultural-HeritageP6047.jpg1.)  Sometimes a person dies without having time to make a will or property list for his family.  We handle many research and collections for descendants of persons who died unexpectedly, often in wars and revolu-tions.  During WWII, many Jews opened accounts in Switzerland etc., then perished in concentration camps.  The governments of the several countries which became communist between 1917 (Russia) and 1948 (Czechoslo­vakia) nationalised (confiscated) many private homes and businesses.  In many of these cases, EEH has successfully claimed the assets for the living heirs.August-Gottlieb-GRIEPENTROG-1835-1918.pn

Lemburg-WWII-Dump.jpg2.)  Many Europeans and Americans who owned rental property, both before and after the bank failures of the 1920-1940 world depression, did not trust banks and collected rents in cash.  Sometimes when a man owned several properties, his wife and children were unaware of his holdings.  When he died, unless his will listed the properties he owned at death, some of his tenants merely stopped paying rent.  If they paid the property tax every year, they could remain rent-free and even pass the property on to their children.  This continues until a company such as EEH discovers it and locates the deceased owner's heirs.

Really, my family is very close…Knut-Ekwall-s-The-Emigrants.png


Please realise that no matter how close your family is, there can always be a surprise.  You will not be inheriting from a family member with whom you are close, but rather from a family member with whom you are distant.  Perhaps you remember when US President Clinton was surprised by a man who claimed to be his half-brother (and he was!):  http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20110746,00.html 


       Of course, unknown living relatives occur more frequently in non-famous families:  http://vita-brevis.org/2014/07/suspicious-first-cousin/?utm_source=twgnewsletter&utm_medium=newsletter&utm_campaign=twg699 


       Unknown deceased relatives occur in all families -- For example, can you name your paternal grandfather's nieces?  (And even then, you would need their married names to find their deaths, cemeteries, offspring, etc.)


Why have I never heard of your type of business? 

1906-KIRCHHOFF-Karl-g.-1883-Grabstein.jp       Unknown inheritances are rare events.  They occur only a few thousand times per year.  Also, unknown inheritance genealogy is one of the few businesses that does not advertise.  We start with the property or other assets, and then attempt to locate lawful heirs.  [We indeed are the bearers of good news!]  We do not start with potential heirs, or people who believe they are entitled to an inheritance, so we do not advertise for those people to contact us. 

Day-11-Lesya-with-tired-eyes-a-war-arkiv  1953 Landing Permits, NY TALLAKSEN, Stanley & Martha




       The reason EEH does not attempt to find inheritances for people is that many people would want such a service, but very few of them have inheritances out there waiting for them.  Many people will tell you that they were supposed to inherit from their GM's (grandmother’s) 10 Million Kroner estate, or that that their GGF was a New York banker who made $Millions and deposited it all in a bank in Dallas, TX before his untimely death.  We learnt many years ago that most of these family legends are untrue, and that is why we always start with the property, not with the heirs.  Below are some properties we researched and found that they were in possession of persons or entities not the lawful owners.  We then performed genealogical research, identified and located unknown heirs, and retreived these properties for them:











        Fraud Warning, side 1   

Can I lose any money?

       A basic principle of our work is that our clients never pay any money.  This assures them that we are honest.  Dishonest programmes have one thing in common:  You pay money.  Our only fee is a percentage of what we actually recover for you.  You never pay any money, so there is no way you can lose any money.  You can only gain.

Fraud Warning, side 2

What is Inordinate Wariness? 

        On the other end of the scale from the above is a growing phenomenon in human nature which can be referred to as excessive caution.  It can be just as bad to have too much caution as to have too little.

Canadian-Maple-Leaf-Gold-CoinExample:  The Value of Gold  Almost everyone knows that gold, which was worth ₤6 ($32) per ounce in our grandfathers' day, is  worth hundreds per ounce today.  An ounce (1 oz, 28.35 grams) of gold is currently worth  ₤837.94.  http://www.hardassetsalliance.com/charts/gold-price/gbp/oz   However, if you believe that the average person has enough confidence in his own knowledge to act on it to his financial advantage, you will be surprised by this video (click white triangle):

The woman at 03:28 seems the most open minded, but unfortunately misses her opportunity in the end.  This maple leaf coin video tests human willingness to invest small amounts for the certainty of large gain, whereas the opportunity which EEH offers its heirs requires no investment.  Still, a growing minority of heirs decline EEH's offer.



Why do modern governments stamp their gold coins as being worth only a small fraction of their true value?  EEH's owner James Hannum believes the answer is that if the government were to stamp the coins with their true value (e.g. $1,600), it would be an admission that they printed too much paper currency and then spent it into circulation, causing rampant inflation.  This is the "hidden tax."  Before these decades of inflation, $10 gold coins were worth $10.  Your grandfather might have received one for a week's full time work.  If Dutch, he might have received the small 10 guilders coin to the right.  His wife would have made very sure that none of his pockets had a hole in it!

Do you take any fees & costs from the inheritance
before comupting my 2/3 share?

James-Bond--chem-de-fer.jpg       No, we don't.  This is a good question not often asked.  European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) receives only it's 1/3 fee.  We spend on average over £5,000 on those inquiries that reach advanced research stage, to purchase birth, marriage, death and other records, for remote research and researcher fees, our own travel expenses, database fees, etc.  Rather than deduct these expenses "off the top" of the recovered inheritance, EEH pays them from its own funds, without reimbursement from anyone, regard- less of the outcome of the inheritance claim.  These are our costs of doing business, investments we are willing to risk for inheritance claims we believe are valid.  Like Mr. Bond, we must know when to bet and when to fold.  

 What fraction of the 
  inheritance will I receive?
The fraction depends on your 
place on the family tree in relation
to the original owner of the asset. 
It also depends on how many

  other heirs there are. 

These are mathematical questions. 
If a grandfather dies leaving
two daughters, and two grandsons
(sons of a deceased daughter),
the fractions taken by these four 
are set by law.  Usually:
The daughters each take 1/3. 
The grandson’s each take 1/6
because they divide the 1/3 share of
their deceased mother between them. 
     In some countries, 
half blood relatives take half shares,
and in other countries full shares.
The son of your GM’s half-sister
is your half-great-uncle.




Is it land?
Is it more than

Is it in Germany? 


     European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) has a policy not to answer such questions until we have located all the heirs and they have either signed our agreement or renounced the inheritance.  The reason for this is to insure that we are paid for our work. 


Was war, schläft... aber kann aufwachen.  -  That which was, sleeps... but can awaken.
  The motto of our Company, European Emigrant Heritage

What if I sign the Agreement but my sister doesn’t?

       The majority of people offered our Agreement sign it.  When someone declines to sign, they are left out of the inheritance.  This makes the inheritance shares of those who sign larger.  You may never have heard of many of your fellow inheritors.  Your relatives may be as far flung as Connecticut, (Old) York, New York, Sydney, and Buenos Aires.  Please be assured you have never met most of your living relatives:





How do I know EEH will give me my share?

       EEH never handles your money.  The solicitor
RUMPOLE-of-the-Bailey.jpgserving as administrator of the fund holds the money in a separate account he maintains solely for this purpose.  He calculates the tax due, the calculation is ratified by the Collector of Taxes, and the tax is paid from the account, prior to calculating EEH's percentage fee.  The solicitor then sends you your cheque, and EEH its cheque.  If he fails to send you your money, he could lose his licence to practise law.


Who pays for the solicitor?  

       All legal fees and costs are paid from the recovery, before EEH's fee is calculated.  The solicitor's fee is 3% of the inher-itance he is able to recover.  If he is unable to recover anything, his fee is zero.  In rare cases of extensive litigation, the 3% is increased.  In no case do you ever pay anything out of your own pocket.  Since you never pay anything, you can never lose anything.


Are there any guarantees?

       EEH can give no guarantee that our attempt to recover your family's assets will be successful, because unforeseen circumstances may prevent it.  For example, a person or persons more closely related to the original owner of the asset may be found.  Or a mortgage or tax lien may be asserted against the property.  What we do guarantee is this:  WE WILL DO THE BEST WE CAN TO PROVE, EXPEDITE, AND MAXIMISE YOUR INHERITANCE, AND AT NO TIME WILL YOU BE REQUIRED TO INVEST A PENNY OUT OF YOUR OWN POCKET.



 What if the debts exceed the assets?

       Let's suppose  that the asset accruing to your family is a parcel of land worth €100.000.  If the land is encumbered by a €30.000 mortgage and a €40.000 lien for back taxes, the net recovery would be €30.000, and EEH's percentage would be calculated only on that  €30.000.  Supposing however that the back taxes were €120.000, so that there is nothing to recover.  In that event, you would receive nothing, and EEH would receive its percentage of nothing, i.e., nothing.  Part of the taxes would remain unpaid, but neither you nor EEH would be responsible for paying them.  One is not responsible for the debts of a deceased relative; debts are not inherited.

How does genealogical research work? 

Is-this-the-right-Olga.jpg       Here is a typical example.  The research of a Philip LEOPOLD uncovers that his original surname was LEPAR and that he was born in Kriukai, Lithuania, the son of Yehuda-Leib LEPAR.  This is confirmed by a search in the All-Lithuania Database (ALD) and turns up several LEPAR families in Kriukai, Lithuania and neighbouring villages.

       In order to find the descendants of the original great-grandfather, Amiel LEPAR, it was necessary to hire the entire class of a professor of history in a nearby university, to locate the tombstones in question.  These enthusiastic students walked hundreds of cemetery rows and transcribed over 8,000 tombstones!  Even so, it would not have been possible to solve this case without an index, the Kovno-Slatis cemetery list, which was produced by the "Chevren Kadisha," the burial society of Viliampolka.  This index does not cover the entire cemetery, but is an index showing the names, section and row numbers of those who died in the Ghetto between 1941and 1943, a period which contained many of the key deaths in the family.



       The wedding photograph shown to the left was accepted as evidence in the Austrian court of inheritance as the wedding of Harry KOWEN and Dolly LEOPOLD, who were the grandparents of Mervyn ______, one of the heirs in the case.  The seven LEOPOLD sisters are shown in the photo-graph.  The face of the groom was adjudged to match the German work permit card, which was located in an archives in Berlin.

       Many of the genealogical records in the above LEPAR/LEOPOLD case were in German because those parts of Bosnia in which the family resided were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire prior to 1919.  To understand these records one must acquire the ability to read the Sütterlinschrift (Sutterlin handwriting), in which the German language of that period was (very beautifully) written:



Another example is a case EEH recently worked in Siberia.  The following is taken from a letter written by James Hannum of EEH: 

Omsk-bazaar.jpg...Our original proof packet translated the words село (selo) and деревня(derevnya) as “village.”  Because there is an important genealogical difference between a selo and a derevnya, the words should not be translated but should instead be transliterated into the Roman Alphabet and separately defined.  According to Vladimir Dahl’s magnum opus, Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language, which was published in 4 huge volumes in 1863, the definition of “selo” is “A place built and settled by peasants in which there is a church, and sometimes selo consists of many scattered derevnyas all belonging to one congregation and one church.”  The definition of derevnya is “Peasant settlement in which there is no church.”  As you will note from the enclosed revised proofs, the phrases “Village of Petroselki” and “Village of Molotychi ” have been changed to “Petroselki Derevnyaand Molotychi Selo.  Given that they are only three miles apart (Our Proof #25, Petroselki and Molotychi Satellite Map), the fact that all derevnyas had to belong to a selo so that its residents would have a church, and Dahl’s above definitions, we conclude that Petroselki Derevnya belonged to Molotychi Selo.  Thus Grigoriy could say he resided in either place. 


      It is obvious that Grigoriy KORNEEV and Grigoriy ABALMASOV are the same man. Consider:

  1. Grigoriy KORNEEV and Grigoriy ABALMASOV are both shown in the above records having the same patronymic name, Kuzmin, meaning “son of Kuzma.”  The given name “Kuzma” is now, and was in 19th Century Russia, a fairly rare name. 

  2. Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV came from Petroselki Derevnya, Fatezhskiy Uyezd, Kursk Guberniya.  (Our Proof #1).
    Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV came from the Molotychi Selo, Fatezhskiy Uyezd, Kursk Guberniya.  (Our Proof #2).

  3. Since Petroselki Derevnya belonged to Molotychi Selo, a man from Petroselki Derevnya could say he was from either place.

  4.  Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV and Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV both arrived in Siberia in 1896.

  5. Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV and Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV lived in the same tiny place, Belovodovskoye Settlement, Mariinsk Okrug, Tomsk Guberniya, Siberia.

  6. After 1896, Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV never again used the surname KORNEEV, and the name Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV never appears again in the record books.

     In the 1916 Agricultural Census (our Proof #24), taken twenty years after the above Petition for Money, Grigoriy’s family is listed as ABALMASOV; there is no Grigoriy KORNEEV or Petr KORNEEV in the 1916 Census...  


Examples of proofs EEH presented in the above case:













       We learned the lesson long ago at European Emigrant Heritiage to "never give up" when looking for solutions to genealogical research problems.  "Never give up" became one of our mottos, that when the research was tough, one of us would say it to the others, to encourage them.  It's too easy to say, "this case has no solution" or "cross off that branch of the family" because they moved, perhaps all died, no one remembers them, no evidence they had issue, etc. Of course, we often do have to give up, lest we be stuck working on a case for ten years, but we must strictly analyze the research potential of any inquiry before dropping it.


       The below amazing story validates the "never give up" motto, and there are many like it.  Often just shelving a case for a couple years until records are scanned and indexed, results in solving "unsolvable" problems.  These Red Cross records allowed us to solve two separate estate inquiries, allowing the estates of the outstanding WWI decedants to be distributed to collateral kin.  [Proving their death in the War, added to their military records showing single marital status, forclosed the possibility that they later married and left issue.]

London Daily Mail (Newspaper)  13 March 2009   by Alexandra Williams

Unknown no longer: thousands of WW1

                              dead could at last be identified
Red-Cross-basement-archive--death-burial--capture-of-23--mi.jpg       War graves in France: Peter Barton's discovery could lead to thousands of soldiers being identified, years after they fell in battle. They are the nameless heroes buried in anonymous graves during and after the carnage of the Great War. For nine decades their last resting place has been marked simply "records" with the words 'Unknown Soldier'                 Red Cross basement, Geneva

or 'Known Only Unto God'. But thousands may soon be identified after the discovery of a vast forgotten archive. For British families who know they have a relative who died or went missing in the 'war to end all wars', but have never been able to pinpoint their remains, the discovery could at last provide some comfort.

        British historian Peter Barton unearthed the archive, virtually untouched since 1918, in the basement of the Red Cross headquarters in Geneva. The organisation knew it had a vast amount of information there, but Mr Barton is the first to study it in detail. It documents information about the death, burial or capture of more than 20million soldiers from 30 countries who took part in the Great War.

        Carefully entered on card indexes or written into ledgers, the details include name, rank, unit, time of death, exact burial location, home addresses and next of kin. The information has the potential to pinpoint unmarked graves along the Western Front and other battlefields, and could mean headstones which currently mark the grave of an unknown soldier will finally bear a name. It also paves the way for families to complete the history of relatives who died in the bitter trench fighting.
The basement of the Red Cross headquarters in Geneva homed a long-forgotten archive detailing information about the death, burial and capture of more than 20 million soldiers from 30 countries involved in the First World War. 


Thousands of First World War soldiers from both sides are buried in unmarked graves

       Some of the records, in immaculate condition, refer to the sites of mass graves where the bodies of soldiers were piled alongside each other.


       They give detailed directions about where they were dug - many have since been overgrown or built on - and include details which could lead to the identification of soldiers buried in them. 'The emergence of this archive is hugely important,' said Mr Barton. 'It will change the way we look at World War One.

        Historian Peter Barton was given access to the archive which has remained untouched since 1918.                            Peter Barton

'To a military historian it's like finding Tutankhamun's tomb and the Terracotta Warriors  on the same day.'


'This archive has been hidden away - not deliberately - for 90 years. We historians just did not know that this existed. The Red Cross tells me I am the first researcher who has ever asked to see it.' Mr Barton, a First World War historian and author, stumbled across the records after being commissioned by the Australian government to find the identities of soldiers found at Pheasant Wood, Fromelles, France.

        The trail led him to the Red Cross Museum in Geneva where he was given access to their basement. The records were passed to the Red Cross by the combatant countries at the end of the war.

        The Red Cross acted as a go between for the protagonists. Information was then copied and passed to the soldiers' home countries but, according to Mr Barton, the UK's copy of the data no longer exists, much of it having been destroyed in the Second World War. The same fate is believed to have befallen the records in France and Germany.

        The Red Cross

is already working to Red-Cross-workers--pictured-during-the-war-copy-1.jpgbring the archive into the computer age. The organisation has set aside £2.4 million to con- serve and digitise the paper records. The project will begin in  autumn and will involve experts from around Europe. The Red Cross hopes to have the archive online by 2014, the cent enary of the Great War. 

                                                              Red Cross workers, pictured during the war in 1917

 'We want to archive these records because it will be far easier for families to access the information they require,' said a Red Cross spokesman. 'They hold an incredible amount of detail.'

        See a BBC video interview of Mr. Barton (a colleague of EEH researchers) by clicking the below BBC link.  After watching it, you may return to the EEH website by the back arrow in the upper left corner of your screen:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7940569.stm




If you have Jewish ancestry, you may be interested in one of the biggest developments of the past 50 years:




maus-klickenYou have reached the bottom of Page 2. About Us.  To mouse-click links to the other Pages of this website,
arrow on black URgo to CONTENTS at the top left of this page.


If you have enlarged text to 150% for easier reading (see top of Page 2. About Us), go to to the top of this page and drag the long bar at the bottom of your screen from left to right to see CONTENTS


























Repost 0
Published by European Emmigrant Heritage
write a comment
June 28 2011 3 28 /06 /June /2011 20:57

Types of Assets, Avoiding Scams - 7 May 1993

Finding Dormant Bank Accounts

There has been a rise in the number of companies that provide unclaimed money tracking services. Companies such as The Abandoned Property Registry, The Railway Stocks Registry, European Emigrant Heritage, and others will, for a fee, track down dormant accounts, pensions and investments... If you or an older or deceased family member have changed jobs or mailing addresses one or more times, it is possible that there are account(s) now lying dormant. Claimants who find they are entitled to unclaimed funds may also be entitled to interest...

Premium Bonds

Premium bonds account for approximately £3.6 million in unclaimed funds in the UK...     Unclaimed money researchers sometimes do locate such funds, discover their unclaimed status, and reconnect people with unclaimed premium bonds funds for a fee. There is no time limit on the redemption of premium bonds...

Former Soldiers' Pensions

Former soldiers may not have made a claim for a pension to which they were entitled, or may not know that they were entitled to extra pension funds because they had had tax deducted by the Ministry of Defence. Pensions to former soldiers are tax free if they were granted due to medical unfitness as a result of war service. Over 3,000 former soldiers have reclaimed over £7 million in rebates to date...  

Tracking Down an Inheritance

You should bear in mind that a common reason that such assets have gone unclaimed is that the original party, or his/her relatives entitled to claim his/her assets, are elderly or deceased... For the past many centuries, thousands of people have died every year without leaving a will, i.e., they die intestate. Since the passing of the inheritance acts in the 1560's, if beneficiaries cannot be found, the estate assets after the payment of lawful debts of the decedent escheat to the Crown/Treasury. Currently the Treasury Solicitor advertises in various newspapers asking for beneficiaries to come forward... As of 31 December 1991 the amount left unclaimed for the fifteen year period came to £12,059,862... The Treasury Solicitor is required to list accounts fifteen years old or less in one of the public registers. Checking the registers, either by visiting his London office or by sending a letter requesting that the registers be checked, and also checking the national and local newspapers in the areas inhabited by yourself and your older or deceased family members, are possible methods of finding such assets without paying a fee... Some locator firms in the past have requested advances for legal fees, filing costs, etc., and some have failed to return the advanced sums in the event of the failure of the inheritance claim. It is almost certainly a bad decision to give the locator firm money in advance of your personal and verified receipt of the inheritance funds. By "receipt" we mean that the locator's cheque has been negotiated against locator's bank, the funds paid to your bank and standing in your account without limitation or "hold." In the case of bank wire transfer, the transfer should be received by your bank and standing in your account without limitation or "hold." It is not enough that you or your bank receive notice that the funds are available, have been paid, or that the wire has been sent



Limitations of EEH's Research

Below is an example of research we decline to undertake:

...I am writing to inquire whether I may engage your services in a difficult research area of my family.  We are looking for descendants of four SHAW sisters, orphaned as children in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1890. They were taken into care by Quarrier's Homes in Bridge of Weir, near Glasgow, and later sent to Canada.
Children of John SHAW and Margaret STEWART (or STUART), their mother died in 1883 and their father in 1890. They were taken into care in 1890/91.
Elizabeth (Lizzie) SHAW was sent to Canada in May 1891, aged 12. By 1926 she had married a Mr GIBSON. Perhaps in Toronto.
Annie SHAW was sent to Canada in May 1892, aged 17. She later married there.
Mary Jane SHAW, later known as Jane, was sent to Canada in June 1897, aged 16. She returned to Glasgow in 1905 to work in service for 12 months, but went back to Canada in June 1906.
Jemima SHAW was sent to Canada in June 1894, aged 10. She was living in Toronto in 1926.
I have information about elder sisters who remained in Glasgow...

A family story comes from an elderly relative about her mother having had orphaned sisters who were taken into a home and sent to Canada.
The biggest children's home in the Glasgow area was and probably still is Quarrier's. A family member visited them in Bridge of Weir and got very detailed information from their records - the parents' deaths and social circumstances, a squabble between the two eldest children about admission of the younger ones to the home, addresses for everyone involved, dates of admission to the home, and dates of departure to Canada, the lot. Even the name and address of a previously unknown uncle.
The home seems to have encouraged their emigrant children to keep in touch, and recorded any visits they made back to Scotland in adulthood and sometimes their marriages (sadly, not always where or when or to whom!). What interests us now is how they got on in Canada, and if they left any descendants there.
Quarrier's Homes have a website and are obviously accustomed to receiving family history inquiries in person and online. They state that they will do a free search of their records if you'll consider making a donation to their funds of at least £10. They are a charity, after all. They have not responded to our donation, though, and we hope that you may have more luck with them, as you are an established research company with contacts in that precise area... 

Note:  European Emigrant Heritage does not undertake recreational or hobby genealogical research, or research requested by persons about their own families.  We begin our research cases only with the discovery of assets whose legal owners are unknown. We decline to undertake research for prospective or hopefull heirs, despite the fact that they possess family lore, legends, or stories passed down stating that they are entitled to inherit from a deceased relative. 





To mouse-click links to the other pages of this website,

go to CONTENTS (above right).
arrow UR
lf you enlarged the text of this website for easier reading,
mouse-drag the long bar at the bottom of your screen
from left to right to see CONTENTS




To those who value their European heritage,

to those who are fascinated & enthralled with culture,

the preservation & enhancement of TRADITION is all important.

No better example can be found than the musical "Fiddler on the Roof" 



  The making and practice of culture

is one little piece at a time.

Here is a piece that will last a lifetime,

the hand-carved cooking spoon.

This is a component of European heritage:










Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment
June 8 2011 4 08 /06 /June /2011 16:12


    Europe de la...


       Maurice Auguste Chevalier                           ...Mémoire


Le Chat qui Peche, 

     Rue de la Huchette.
Paris at night, and the strains o

            a ghost saxophone.

     Juliette and Miles, 
        Black and white city.

Paris by night, and the ghosts of two people in love.

I’ll be dreaming again, always dreams of yesterdays.
Those days live on, 
safe here in my heart.

Statue Medicis des amoureux-copy-1  Cherchez la femme,
slips through a doorway, 
     out of the night 
to the warmth of a
        new lover’s arms.

Rue St Benoit.
  La route enchantee.
Indigo nights, 
and the ghost of the moon in the Seine.

    I’ll be dreaming again, always dreams of yesterdays.
  Those days live on, safe here in my heart.

                                   -- Alfreda Benge, 2003


Painting: "Old Paris" by Linifon   Foto of: Maurice Chevalier


...And not to be forgotten, Europe's romantic composers, who are enumerated below by Ukrainian-American David Kaminski (Danny Kaye 1913-1987), and by old "bayou French" Louis Armstrong (1901-1971).

Und nicht zu vergessen, Europas alte Zeit Komponisten, die unterhalb von ukrainisch-amerikanische David Kaminski (Danny Kaye 1913-1987), und von alten "Bayou Französisch" Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), aufgeführt werden.

E non va dimenticato, d'Europa compositori dei vecchi tempi, chi sono elencati sotto da ucraino-americano David Kaminski (Danny Kaye 1913-1987), e da vecchio "bayou francese" Louis Armstrong (1901-1971).

І не слід забувати, про романтиків композиторів Європи, як розповідає україне-амерйканець Девід Камінські (Danny Kaye) 1913-1987, і старий "байу француз" Луї Армстронг 1901-1971.

Danny Kaye als Hans Christian Anderson
Triangle-starts-video-copy-1.pngIf a picture has a triangle in the middle of it, click it to watch the video.  Note the above photo of 'Dutch' Danny Kaye does not have a triangle; the below picture does.  Click the triangle to see a great take off on America's European musical heritage:




 A Letter from an Heir Client 


It is always gratifying to tell a person about his family.  It usually brings up good memories, and can tell him things he did not know about the past.  Below is a letter an heir wrote us in 2004. It is the best letter we have yet to recieve. Letter writing is becoming a lost custom in these times; we wish we would receive more letters from our heir clients giving us feedback about their experience.


Dear Mr. Hannum:

     Now that Mara and I have received our inheritance, I want to tell you how nice it was for both of us. Certainly the money is very welcome. We are getting a new roof that we've sorely needed these past years. Mara is going to visit her son in Nova Scotia and may even stop a few days in Chicago to visit with my daughter and her family. We also plan to visit the States (for the first time!) this coming Summer. 

     But what I most want to tell you is what it means to all of us in the Kilkenny family (my cousins included) to finally (and unexpectedly) to find out what happened to my grandfather and his brothers. This is a family mystery and a sadness we have all felt since our childhood. My only regret is that my father is not with us when the mystery is solved! Everyone appreciated the kind help of all members of your team in putting us in contact with our aunts whose existence we had known nothing.  

     We wish you and Lesya and everyone at European Emigrant Heritage very well in the future and as I said the next time you come up our way, be sure to stop for a visit! 

With warm regards,

Moira G. Mackie né Kilkenny

Aberdeen, Scotland  


















Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment
July 31 2010 7 31 /07 /July /2010 08:27



Extracts From Attached Report of Citizens Advisory Committees Re Unclaimed Property

...Under federal laws currently in effect, and under the laws of almost every US state and local government, personal property is considered unclaimed when contact with the lawful owner is lost for a designated period varying between five and one hundred years, depending on the jurisdiction.  
…[Contact] is usually lost due to the death of the lawful owner or his spouse, next of kin, or designated beneficiary, (hereinafter collectively referred to as “lawful owner”), although [contact] may also be lost due to the lawful owner's mental incapacity or simple forgetfulness.  Other factors which may disrupt [contact] are the lawful owner's name change after marriage or divorce, and unreported changes of address or expired postal forwarding orders.  Finally, either the lawful owner or the original holder of the property may make mistakes in the records under their control, by losing all or part of the records or maintaining inaccurate records. 
…The original holders of unclaimed funds are usually banks, investment brokers, auction houses, employers, life and casualty insurance companies, and government agencies...  Upon expiry of the period of years prescribed in the applicable unclaimed property law, these original holders are required to transfer custody, and eventually exclusive ownership (either by law or practicality),  to the governmental unclaimed property agency, through the legal processes of transfer and escheat…  Almost all of these governmental agencies make an organized effort to locate and notify the lawful owners, beneficiaries, and heirs, and over 80% of the agencies periodically publish unclaimed property name lists in newspapers of general circulation...  The results from these efforts is substantial, and largely as a result of these efforts,  approximately 24% of the nationwide total of property held by these governmental agencies are claimed by the lawful owners, beneficiaries, and heirs.  In a similar study to ours, the Department of the Treasury reported in 1935 that 51% of the nationwide total of property was returned to the lawful owners, and perhaps the decline of success from 51% in 1935 and 24% in 1988 is attributable to the greatly increased dollar size of the unclaimed property accounts,  and the current shortfall of funding for the governmental agencies efforts to locate the lawful owners.
...There is now, and there has always been as far as we can determine, little or no effort undertaken by the private (non-governmental) property holders, to locate and notify the lawful owners of the dormant property they hold.  Nor are there in the vast majority of the states and local governments (including DC), laws or infrastructure in place to compel or facilitate these private holders to publicize their holdings or otherwise attempt to discover and notify the lawful owners.  This lack of laws and infrastructure is unfortunate because in most cases of [lost contact], the possibility of re-establishing [contact] is greatest during the years immediately following the [loss of contact].  
Portland-Streetcar-250x163-copy-1.jpg...The largest exception in most jurisdictions to the legal requirement that holders of unclaimed property transfer and escheat the property to the government, is the case of [loss of contact] between defunct railroads and their stockholders, when the right to participate in the proceeds from the sale of still existing rights-of-way to developers result in the shares obtaining value, without a physical fund of money.  Since defunct railroads have stopped paying dividends, there are no accrued dividends to transfer or escheat...  [T]he stockholder may have discarded and/or forgotten about his stocks.  In most states only those stockholders who learn of the opportunity and come forward will participate, and there are no laws we have been able to locate requiring transfer or escheat of pro-rated right-of-way sales proceeds, for the non-claiming shares.  It is the opinion of the VPC legal counsel (Attachment D), that the lack of adequate laws or infrastructure compelling the purchasers or the sellers of the rights-of-way to publish an announcement of the sale and a list of the stock owners in newspapers of general circulation, constitutes th
e taking of property without due process of law in violation of the US Constitution.
…There is no data on how much property is successfully reclaimed by the lawful owners from the original holders, prior to the holders transferring the property to the governmental agencies...  Based upon inquiries which VPC has completed, successful property claims to federal, state, and local unclaimed property agencies are less than 29% of the nationwide total of property.  (This percentage assumes that accounts that remained unclaimed more than fifteen years will never be claimed, which is supported by the history of older dormant accounts from the period 1922 to 1973).




Pegasus -- The Travelling People

The many emigrants we at European Emigrant Heritage have researched over the years remind me of the below excellant poem and song.  Nowadays it takes a truck and a week's work to move a family, what with all the modern possessions.  In years past people had little to move, and the emigrants across the sea had the least of all.  Going backwards and forward in our research it's often difficult to discover from whence these travellers came and whither they went.  When they arrived in the new abode, they usually moved from one address to another once a year or so.  Many spelled their names more than one way and gave a half dozen different years of birth for themselves.  All this made these rambling people, hard to follow through the records. 

Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment
September 29 2009 3 29 /09 /September /2009 04:14

Links to the other pages of this website are listed at right. View these links from the top of any page by dragging to the right the horizontal movement bar at the bottom of your screen. 




        Before pursuing war accounts, EEH's most successful area of reasearch to date, let's enjoy learning a thing or two about one of the many pillars of culture, basket weaving.  For as much money as Messrs. Hitler, Mussolini, et al. stole from us during the wars, life is not really about money, is it?     




         For several years, the controversy over Switzerland's role in World War II raged in the media, among thousands of possible claimants and their attorneys, and between nations. Questions have been raised concerning dormant Swiss bank accounts, Nazi gold, and property confiscated and stolen during by the German Third Reich.



Their-home---money-taken--Koln-1941.jpgBeginning in September 1939, Hitler swiftly conquered country after country within Europe. By June 1941, Switzerland's neutrality became a beacon of hope. Increasingly severe restrictions and persecution of Jews caused many to search for safety. Thousands of Jews tried to hide themselves as well as their money in Switzerland.

Schweitzer Hundert FrankenAs Jews reached Switzerland's borders they were turned away. It had become easy to recognize Jewish passports since Germany had begun affixing German Jewish passports with the letter "J" for "Jude" ("Jew" in German) in 1938. The Germans did this at Switzerland's request for an easier way to identify Jews coming to its borders. 

Hitler-u-Goring-mit-gestohlenen-Kunstwerken.jpgIn the summer of 1942, when the mass deportations had begun taking millions to their deaths in camps, Switzerland closed its borders completely to all refugees. Though contemporary views of this action question Switzerland's intentions, Switzerland was not the only nation to close their borders to Jews during the war and the United States and Great Britain are prime examples. However, it was Switzerland's wartime policies that had the biggest impact on those attempting to escape the Third Reich, because it was much more difficult to immigrate to Britain and the US than it was to immigrate to Switzerland, which is located in the centre of Europe and borders six countries.)


Nazi Gold and Loot

Arbeitslager.jpgDuring the war, the Nazis stole gold, jewellery, homes, factories, artwork, and other valuables from the millions of Jews they murdered. They also looted (stole) large amounts of valuables from non-Jews in the countries they occupied (France, Belgium, Poland, Lithuania, etc.).  The Germans needed a way to place these commodities in the international market so that they could use the money they received in exchange for their war effort. The Swiss helped facilitate the exchange in addition to holding Nazi accounts. Many speculate that some of the gold that the Swiss accepted were the dental gold and wedding rings taken from Jews at the camps.  If a Jewish or Belgian homeowner was killed, died in battle or bombing, or disappeared, the German government simply took the home.


Bank Accounts

Many Jews never physically attempted to reach Switzerland, but attempted to protect their money by opening Swiss bank accounts. Many Jews who opened these accounts perished in the Holocaust.

GM-General-Motors-Opel-Nazi-Germany-Wehrmacht-Adolf-Hitler-.jpgThere are many survivors who remembered that their parents or uncles opened accounts, but they didn't know the name of the bank, the account numbers nor have any paperwork concerning the accounts, so they were turned away from the banks after the war. Far more knew nothing at all about their relatives' monetary holdings; it was safer not to tell anyone that one had broken German law by taking money out of the country.  Some Swiss banks requested death certificates of the account holder before they would allow the survivors to access the money, even in cases where the survivors had the secret account numbers and exact address of the bank. This was a completely unreasonable request since millions were murdered in the Holocaust with no official record of their deaths.


Belgian-Jews-wearing-the-star-of-David.jpgFor several decades after the war, individual survivors petitioned and requested information about these accounts with little to no success. The vast majority of claimants, over time, simply gave up.  In 1974, the Swiss announced that they found 4.68 million Swiss francs in dormant accounts. This money was divided between two Swiss relief agencies and to the Polish and Hungarian governments.  Jewish experts claimed this was only a small fraction of the money in the accounts.

In 1996, U.S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato (R-NY) brought the subject of the dormant accounts to the U.S. government's attention, and hearings were started to unearth the truth about the survivors' claims. Pressure from the United States has angered the Swiss, who feel that this is an attack upon their reputation for the benefit of U.S. banking agencies.

Christoph Meili 1997The questions concerning the morality of the Swiss during the war came into the public limelight when a night security guard at a Swiss bank noticed on January 14, 1997 a large bin of old documents pertaining to Nazi and wartime accounts waiting to be shredded. The Swiss claim that these were of no interest to the hearings.

On January 29, 1997, the US Congress considered boycotting Swiss banks. (A "Washington insider" remarked that Switzerland would never believe the threat, due to the $Billions held in secret numbered Swiss accounts belonging to US congressmen, cabinet members, and other corrupt US officials.)  Perhaps the Swiss did give some credence to the threat, for eight days later, three Swiss banks announced that they would create a humanitarian fund of 100 million Swiss francs (U.S. $70 million).  Although this fund was criticized as being much too small, and not going to the depositors' families, there was no boycott.

NSDAP Arbeitslager Majdanek-1Since the overwhelming majority of the Jews who opened Swiss bank accounts died during the war, and the export of money out of Germany and Austria was a heavily punished crime, and no accurate figures about the total amount of money Jews really placed within the Swiss banks. Jewish organisations believe there could be tens of $Billions, while the Swiss have only disclosed several million. Since most Jews residing in Europe in 1940 had been killed by the end of the war in 1945, in most families both the father and mother and all their children, and often all the siblings of the father and mother, were dead.  If the father in such a family had a Swiss account, his closest surviving family member would be a cousin, and few elderly cousins now come forward to make claims. 

Union-de-Banques-Suisses.jpgMost recently, in June, the Swiss government announced that it would establish a $5 Billion humanitarian foundation.

But what about the survivors of the Holocaust whose families' entire fortunes were stored in Swiss accounts? On July 23, 1997, the Swiss produced a list of dormant accounts that is accessible to the public. The list contains names, and often complete pre-1945 depositors' addresses, but no money amounts. Any person or entity with a valid claim on these accounts may go through an accounting firm and then an international panel, by which it will be decided whether or not there is sufficient written evidence and/or oral testimony, and also sufficient genealogical documentation, to support each claim.




To mouse-click links to the other pages of this website,

go to CONTENTS (above right).
arrow UR
lf you enlarged the text of this website for easier reading,
mouse-drag the long bar at the bottom of your screen

from left to right to see CONTENTS.







World War I "Assets"


Assets from WWI recovered by EEH consist of bank accounts, insurance policies, stocks & bonds (including government issued), real property (land & its improvements), mines, mining rights, and mining dividends (liquidated and accrued).  While not as frequent as WW II asset recovery, these recovered assets have totalled over £7,000,000 by 2010.  


Lest we overemphasize the pecuniary losses sustained in WWI, "the Great War" as it was called until circa 1942, did indeed cause hundreds of £Billions in property damage and ruined lives and work careers.  Crops destroyed, to deprive advancing armies of sustinance, and several years of no crops planted, alone caused staggering losses and suffering in Europe (and to a lesser extent, the US, where returning soldiers had often not enough left of their army wages to buy seed or clothing to restart their disrupted economic lives.) 


The devastation by death, carnage, and war-caused diseases, was a thousand times worse than all the economic losses and property damage combined.  The below well thought out review is worth the read; it will fill in the blanks left by western education.


             The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 

                                                                                                   by Christopher Clark 

There are many things that can be done while one is asleep. Bellini wrote a delightful opera about somnambulism. However it is difficult to share the same sense of fascination or repose even a century after the outbreak of the Great War. Somehow it defies any standard of human sensitivity to allude to the acts and omissions leading to the millions of slaughtered men and boys at the hands of the greediest financial and industrial elites known to recorded history as the result of "sleepwalking".

Consider the most peculiar omission in this prize-winning story written by a young man from the Dominions: that the author has managed to write over 500 pages about the Great War without scarcely more than ten pages about the British Empire-- then the undisputed world power (not unlike its North American cousin today). All the attention is focussed on Sir Edward Grey, HM Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1905 until 1916.

Strangely enough the name "Grey group" is used as attribution for Britain's foreign policy. Although many of the British sources cited in The Sleepwalkers should more appropriately be attributed to the Milner Group (for those uninitiated this is the closely-knit group of primarily Oxonians who initially joined Cecil Rhodes, Alfred Milner (Secretary of State for War under Lloyd George) and together with the Lord Salisbury were the most powerful force in British imperial politics at least until the end of World War I):

"Grey was not the puppet-master; the men of the new policy-- Bertie, Hardinge, Mallet, Tyrrell and so on-- were not manipulated or controlled by him, but worked alongside him as the members of a loose coalition driven by shared sentiments. Indeed, Grey was quite dependent on some of these collaborators-- many of his decisions and memoranda, for example, were modeled closely on reports from Hardinge." (p. 202)

Who these collaborators were has already been explained by Carroll Quigley in his 1981 (posthumous) study of the Anglo-American Establishment. Quigley-- far from a hostile scholar-- objected that by means of entrenched control/ influence of the principal academic institutions and publishers this group concentrated in the Rhodes Trust and certain Oxford colleges have been able to write their own history for the public and suppress any other views. The Sleepwalkers is another proof that Anglo-American historical scholarship regarding British imperial history is still tightly controlled. At the latest after the discrediting of Mr Tony Blair for his willful deceits to promote the recent Gulf Wars, skepticism ought to be warranted when examining the statements and acts of HM Government when it comes to wars.

As Quigley noted-- and anyone who has held genuinely non-conformist academic opinions will have experienced-- the best way to suppress uncomfortable or disagreeable facts is to ignore them. The Sleepwalkers might be viewed as a naive piece of work from a young scholar from down under. However such naiveté or careless omission of the world's great power in 1914 has been amply rewarded-- the author recently received a royal (Regius) chair in history at Cambridge-- as did most of the official historians of the Milner Group.

However a more important issue than the scholarly neglect of the most important power in the world at that time and the most important group of collaborators with Sir Edward Grey is why this book appears now and why has it been so thoroughly promoted in Germany. It is true that the author, who spent several years at the Free University of Berlin and wrote several books about Prussia, has spent enough time on his subject to warrant writing about the end of Prussia as a polity. However just as no one seriously doubts that Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire was written as an imperial textbook and that the Classics were developed as a discipline in England and Göttingen to supply scholarship to defend European colonialism (see here Martin Bernal's Black Athena), it is worth asking what policy purpose The Sleepwalkers is intended to defend.

Great Britain has pursued two consistent foreign policy principles since the French Revolution. The first is to control the seas and the access to cheap (or free) raw materials (including labour) throughout the world. The second has been to keep Europe divided against itself both to assure access to its markets and to weaken potential imperial competitors. This was a policy understood even in those ancient days before NATO or the European Union. It was one of the main reasons that England was called "perfidious Albion" on the Continent. This meant that the British Empire governed by playing its European competitors against each other.

In Germany The Sleepwalkers has been received either as a welcome relief or a naive attempt to make German militarism seem innocuous or unintentional in the months leading up to July and August 1914. How does the author attempt to relieve Germany of its historical war "guilt"? The answer is rather simple and therein lies the ground for suspicion. The author explains that in essence Germany's leaders did not understand the gravity of the Serbian "threat".

This is a serious shift in the World War I narrative that is by no means accidental. 1991 was the year in which German foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher unleashed what became a vicious aerial bombardment of Serbia and the destruction of Yugoslavia, commencing with his recognition of Croatia's independence. By the time NATO bombs ceased to fall on Serbia, there was no Yugoslavia and the way was cleared for one of Europe's biggest contraband trafficking hubs under NATO management: Kosovo. Back then the media was full of reports about how horrid Serbs were and the danger that Russia would feel obliged to defend the Serbian state. It didn't and everyone was relieved. Today in the Ukraine NATO is engaged in overt and covert operations to separate the country from what the West would call "Russia's sphere of influence". There is every indication among the mass of Germans that they disapprove of this indirect attack on Russia. Nonetheless the German mass media has been entirely on the side of NATO, condemning everyone who dissents as a "Putin-Versteher" (someone who "understand" Putin).

After some ten years of virtually silent deployment of German armed forces in Afghanistan to provide support to the CIA's war there, it now appears as if European NATO units may be necessary to support the right-wing usurpers that have ruled in Kiev since last year. There are two ways to justify this short of an outright attack by Russian forces-- still unlikely since Putin has continuously resisted every provocation to date. One involves absolving the remaining guilty consciences among Germany's elite and the middle class that supports it, thus making outright war seem civilized again. The other complementary approach is to reiterate that it is not Germany (or any other NATO power) that is escalating the crisis but Slavs-- Ukrainians who sympathize with Russia or even consider themselves to be Russian (like so many West Germans seem to think they are Americans). By reminding the educated German that World War I was caused by Serbs and Russians, it is not far fetched to adopt the position that Russia still protects those Slavs who are essentially the cause of the Great War (and if we wait long enough, also caused World War II).

The Sleepwalkers is written like a plenary indulgence granted by the unnamed Anglo-American elite that has profited from every major European war in the 20th century to those whom it would recruit again in its "association of helpers"-- witting and unwitting instruments of neo-imperialism (aka globalisation).

By ignoring any serious discussion of the British Empire, its ruling elite, or the global economic and psychological warfare that was waged by it against its European competitors in the years between 1871 and 1914, this book shows that it is the author who was probably sleepwalking, not the European imperialists who together with Great Britain wantonly slaughtered more than 4 million people for profit and power. For the record World War I was fought by six empires: the British Empire, the American Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Three were destroyed and two became vassals of the USA. It is a good time for all of us to wakeup.











Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment
September 21 2009 2 21 /09 /September /2009 06:54


Page under construction



The 1917 Russian Revolution against the Tsar ended centuries of oppression by the wealthy nobility.  Those who had spoken out against the Tsar had been exiled to Siberia.  The poet Pushkin was one such, resulting in his 19___ poem:

 Во глубине сибирских руд                Deep in the Siberian mines

      Храните гордое терпенье,                Keep your patience proud:     

Не пропадет ваш скорбный труд     The bitter toil shall not be lost,

И дум высокое стремленье.            The rebel thought unbowed.   

   Оковы тяжкие падут,                  The heavy hanging chains shall fall,

Темницы рухнут - и свобода           The walls will crumble at a word

 Вас примет радостно у входа,    And freedom greet you in the light,

И братья меч вам отдадут!       And brothers give you back the sword!

                     --Пушкин                                          -- Pushkin


Here's 1 of 5 re Siege of Leningrad:

Add 2-5 of Siege of L here.


Add essay on USSR set in pics of life & in posters w/captioned translations


Add No 1 My Sergei here


Here's No 2 My Sergei:    

Here's 2-11 My Sergei:
http://youtu.be/tEHbVDLTyQY    http://youtu.be/SqbT6L1u2Ng     http://youtu.be/70lJlFRNivo     
http://youtu.be/nfDQ6NuP4LI     http://youtu.be/3tiiaRKZD8E     http://youtu.be/EdLAg8K3XIs     
http://youtu.be/34M7h7JCjUA      http://youtu.be/QL5uhK72OVE     http://youtu.be/QBIVzsyHS54    
Soviet life video's & pics here
Drei-Rubel-Briefmarke-copy-1.jpg   soviet poster 3










Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment
September 20 2009 1 20 /09 /September /2009 21:19
Click the triangle in the above video to hear the harmony of the Barry Sisters in tribute to Franz Kafka, in Yiddish and then in English.  During his lifetime, Franz Kafka burned an estimated 90 percent of his work.  After his death at age 41, in 1924, a letter was discovered in his desk in Prague, addressed to his friend Max Brod.  “Dearest Max,” it began.  “My last request:  Everything I leave behind me . . . in the way of diaries, manuscripts, letters (my own and others’), sketches and so on, to be burned unread.”  Less than two months later, Brod, disregarding Kafka’s request, signed an agreement to prepare a posthumous edition of Kafka’s unpublished novels.  “The Trial” came out in 1925, followed by “The Castle” (1926) and “Amerika” (1927).  In 1939, carrying a suitcase stuffed with Kafka’s papers, Brod set out for Palestine on the last train to leave Prague, five minutes before the Nazis closed the Czech border.  Thanks largely to Brod’s efforts, Kafka’s slim, enigmatic corpus was gradually recognized as one of the great monuments of 20th-century literature.
Wiener Opfer      Wiener Skulptur
Wiener Staatsoper           Vienna            Wiener Skulptur         


Moise Kisling (above) was born 22 Jan 1891 to a Jewish family in Craców, Austria-Hungary. In the 1890s artists coming to Paris began to settle in Le Bateau Lavoir, a commune in the Montmartre area where small studios were rented. It became a haven for Fauvists and Cubists. Starting from the 1900s André Derain, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Max Jacob, Juan Gris, Kees van Dongen and other artists lived there.  Such was the milieu in which Moise Kisling found himself when he came to Paris in 1910 with a letter of recommendation to Sholom Ash, a well-known Jewish writer who managed to help the young artist. 

Kisling later decided to settle in Montparnasse. He rented a studio at 3 Rue Joseph Bara, where he lived for 27 years. According to a contemporary, Kisling was “the axis around which everything rotated at Montmartre”. His artistry manifested itself in everything. 

Kisling emerged as a famous artist who sold well. He always worked hard. Unlike other artists, he had a strictly regulated working day, which began at 9 o’clock in the morning when models came to sit, had a break for lunch, which he had together with his friends at La Rotonde, Le Dôme or La Coupole, then back to work and more meetings with friends, now at dinner in the evening. Famous model Kiki sat for some of his pictures. She found it hard to stick to Kisling’s strict routine and was invariably excused – after all, theirs were friendly rather than business relations.



London-Ankunft-Judische-Fluchtlinge-1939-copy-2.jpg9391 לאָנדאָן אָנקומען פון אידישע רעפוגעעס פעברואר
London Ankunft der jüdischen Flüchtlinge Feb 1939
 London arrival of Jewish refugees Feb 1939

Junge Hände hoh
יינגל מיט הענט אַרויף, נאַציס מיט גאַנז
Boy with hands up, from Nazis with guns

Osteuropaischen-Ghetto-Karte-1941-1942.gif געטא מאַפּע      Ghetto Map


Nürnberg Trials, 1946 Nuremberg Trials           1946          Nürnberger Prozesse


JCC Manhattan  Katz's Deli, Lower East Side Manhattan

Jewish Community 

Milton Berle Milton Berle







Formed in Israel, the Ariel Quartet (below) moved to the United States in 2004 to continue its professional studies.  The resident ensemble in the New England Conservatory’s prestigious Professional String Quartet Training Program through their graduation in 2010, the Ariel has won a number of international prizes, including the Grand Prize at the 2006 Fischoff National Chamber Music Competition.  After they won the Székely Prize for their performance of Bartók, as well as the overall Third Prize at the Banff International String Quartet Competition in 2007, the American Record Guide described the Ariel Quartet as “a consummate ensemble gifted with utter musicality and remarkable interpretive power” and called their performance of Beethoven’s Op. 132 “the pinnacle of the competition.”




אייראפעישער עמיגראַנט העריטאַגע

Europäische Auswanderer Erbe

European Emigrant Heritage



In the below, tape position 1:50 through 3:40 shows an excellent synopsis of pre-industrial crafts, which along with small farms, comprised Europe's

diverse and independent local economies: 


















  Tool cabinet





Repost 0
Published by European Emmigrant Heritage
write a comment
September 18 2009 6 18 /09 /September /2009 01:32

TRANSLITERATION VARIANTS           by James Hannum

There are usually more than one accepted transliteration of a word or name, from the Russian and Ukrainian alphabets into the Roman (English) alphabet.  Examples:


Леся  = Lesya or Lesia

Михайло = Mykhailo or Myhailo

Ольга = Olga or Olha

Цар = Tsar, Tzar, or Czar


     Russians and Ukrainians use any of the above spellings, depending on their personal preferences; each is an accepted transliteration into English from the Russian or Ukrainian spelling.  The reason for this is that the Cyrillic and Roman alphabets do not correspond well in their sounds.  That is, both alphabets have many sounds that do not really exist in the other, so there are more than one accepted way to transliterate a word.   The sound "zh" does not exist in the English language, for example, and is written in the Cyrillic alphabets of Russian and Ukrainian as an "x" with a vertical line through the middle.


     Here is an example, from an analysis we did in a recent case: 

TZEREDYAKIVA-Nek.-u.-Schwester-Nadya-1923.jpgWhen Nekhemiya ___________ signed her name to the 14 August 1926 letter, it appears that she merely copied the spelling as it was printed in Ukrainian on the signature line.  When the clerk typed this letter, he spelled her name just as it is spelled on her appostiled ZAGS records.  He did not type it as she had spelled it herself on the earlier letters, perhaps because of his own personal preference against mixing alphabets.  Nekhemiya of course had the right to sign her name (make her mark) in any way she chose.  In the 1927 letter, where there was nothing for her to copy, she chose to write it with mixed alphabet and transliteration (spelling) that did not match the ZAGS documents, but who is to say she is wrong in this?  There is more than one accepted way to transliterate (spell) her name. 


Holtzsheibe.jpg     Lets look at the alphabetic letters Nekhemiya used to sign her name in the 1927 letter.  The letter "J" does not exist in the Russian and Ukrainian alphabets.  It is a Polish letter, corresponding in sound fairly closely to the Roman "Y."  The next letter she wrote is a Y, pronounced in Russian and Ukrainian as the letters oo in the English word "food."  The other letters in her signature are the same as her 1926 signature, until you get to the second to last letter, which looks like a lower case b and an upper case I.  These look like two letters, but in the Russian alphabet they are one letter, pronounced like no sound in the English language, but sounding like a cross between an "I" and a "U."  In the first document she uses this Russian letter, but in the second document, the distribution letter, she copies our transliteration and uses the "backward N," on of the Russian "I" letters.


  Nekhemiya wrote of her childhood during the end of the czar (tsar) Nicholas II reign.  As you know, the big trouble began in 1905 in the old Russian Empire (Ukraine was in said empire), with the first failed revolution, which was followed by years of bloody reprisals, economic devastation, and fighting between Reds and Whites, which was heaviest in the years following the "Russian Revolution of 1917," but continued with enough violence and uncertain outcome to continue the chaos in the life and law of the people until the mid-1920's. 


Bauernhofhilfsmittel.jpg     Nekhemiya was born in Ukraine (then Poland, Russian Empire) in 1911, and so her entire school years were spent more concerned with finding enough food and personal safety to survive, than with formal education.  Most of the western half of Ukraine, including the entire region where Nekhemiya was born, was Poland until the year 1945.  Nekhemiya therefore learnt what little reading and writing she could pick up in both Polish and Ukrainian, as well as Russian.  As Lesya and I saw in a handwritten short note she once sent us, her spelling abilities in her native language are extremely bad.   There were four or five spelling mistakes on each line, and she mixes her alphabets 


   School learning was particularly difficult during the first half of the 20th century for the Jews.  Nekhemiya is a diminutive variant of the feminine given name Nekhomo, found in the book Russian-Jewish Given Names (1998) by Boris Feldblyum, Pg. 64:  "Nekhomo... Nakha, Nakhe, Nekhamka, Nakhama, etc."  We will need to introduce more acceptable evidence of all the above if this case does not settle and goes to trial.

     My own name HANNUM caused me problems when I married my wife Lesya BRANOVSKA.  I had to show a copy of my Belarussian work permit, in which the Belarussians had transliterated the Roman "H" in my name to the Russian letter “Г” corresponding to the Roman "G."  This is a commonly used transliteration, as for example, most Russian and Ukrainian books spell the name HITLER with this "G" letter:  Adolf GITLER... there is simply no H in their alphabets! 


Herrlich-wiederaufbau-.jpg   Additionally, the Belarussians (who mostly speak only Russian today, not Belarussian, due to the USSR years), transliterated the "A" in HANNUM to a Cyrillic (Russian) "A," but the Regional ZAGS director handling our marriage application insisted that HANNUM should be transliterated onto the Ukrainian marriage application and certificate with the Ukrainian "E."  Neither the A nor the E have the exact right sound, so it was a tossup... but the ZAGS director was adamant, and claimed that there was no proof I was the same person as on the work permit.  Finally we convinced her on every point of the name except the double "N."  In Ukrainian, double Ns are pronounced twice, with an audible syllible break between them.  She insisted that the Belarusian divorce document containing a single N was a different name, and we had to spend three hours getting a new translation and notarisation of my passport, this time with a single N:  GANEM (ГАНЕМ)!











EEH has many times obtained access to "private" and "no longer extant" hospital, institution, and orphanage records.  These records are important because they usually contain the names and addresses of next of kin.  Pictured here is Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading, Berkshire, Eng.










Repost 0
Published by European Emmigrant Heritage
write a comment
September 17 2009 5 17 /09 /September /2009 21:22

Links to the other pages of this website are listed at right, in CONTENTS. View these links from the top of any page by dragging to the right the horizontal movement bar at the bottom of your screen.     

Each one of the millions of emigrations Оленкаfrom Europe is its own dramatic story; these are stories of sadness and joy, of loss and discovery... of all that was left behind, and all that awaited, startled, and trans-formed.  Each emigrant's new life in USA, Latin America, Australia, etc., from the day of his/her arrival, altered each of them forever.  For the languages, cultures, customs, and materials of their new homes differed greatly from that they had known in the "Old Country."


     This page contains part of the story of one 2nd generation Russia to NYC (New York City) immigrant Annie Cohen, a tale told by her nephew who learned of her existence and much more, 30 years after her death.   Annie's existence had been kept secret by her parents and sister for 71 years, since the date she was sent away and hidden.  During that 71 years, Annie, those that hid her, and those who cared for her, all died.  So this is a story of discovery, and it begins in 1995.  [The book is entitled Annie's Ghosts, by Steve Luxenberg (2009 Hyperion Press, Nonfiction, incl. footnote pgs 365-387)]


1972 COHEN Annie burialPg. 15-  [an unnamed overseer at the Michigan Department of Community Health]:  "I get dozens of calls a month from people just like you... family members who have just discovered that they have a relative they never knew about...  State law doesn't let me tell them anything... "  Mr. Luxenberg, the author:  "But she's been dead thirty years... I'm her next of kin."  Overseer:  "That doesn't matter.  You'll need a court order."  Mr. Luxenberg is persistent through 400Radziwillow-2 by LUXENBERG Steve pages though, successfully "pursuing the secret that would ultimately lead me back to the beginning of the 20th century, through Ellis Island to the crowded streets of Detroit's... immigrant communities, through the spectacular boom of the auto industry's early years and the crushing bust of the Depression, through the wartime revival that transformd the cityRadziwillow, Ukraine by LUXENBERG Steve into the nation's Arsenal of Democracy, through the Holocaust that brought a relative to Detroit and into my mother's secret, through the postwar exodus that robbed the city's old neighborhoods of both population and prosperity."

Read more here:  First Pages of Annie's Ghosts

     EEH heartily recommends this well researched and engaging book.

    Wherever you live in the world, you are likely to have emigrants who left Europe on your family tree.  European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) stands ready to facilitate your securing the heritage of your family's past.

Ethnic Map NYC 1919 - 1, Key

These map sections (not from Mr. Luxenberg's book) show the ethnic communities of Manhattan, NYC in 1919.  The below section shows the parts of NYC's Lower East Side in red where the author's family lived during the first half of the 20th century (1900-1950).

Ethnic Map NYC 1919 - 4, S Manhattan



Memory  from the Broadway musical "Cats" 1981
The Recently Departed

       One need not delve past the "Great War" (1914-1918) to make a living in asset genealogy.  The brothers Steven & Christopher Smyrl, legal genea-logists, have made a great concern working on cases given them by local solicitors.  The brothers are shown below researching the case of a woman who died in 1999 never having married.  Steven is the author of Irish Metho- dists - Where Do I Start?, which is the first in the series ‘Exploring Irish Genealogy,’ published by the Council of Irish Genealogical Organisations.  EEH researchers often refer to Steven's book.

  Pottery the Old Way

         Though electrically-powered wheels are of course common today, many potters still prefer to throw on a human-powered wheel. Whether chosen for aesthetic purposes, out of a sense of traditionalism, or simply for exercise, these human-powered designs usually incorporate a heavy flywheel which is brought up to speed, and kept there, by the operator’s leg muscles. The simplest “kickwheel” is exactly that: the flywheel turns below the seated potter’s feet and is kept in motion by repeatedly kicking its surface.


       Named for Potter-s-kickwheel.jpgstudio potter Bernard Leach, the Leach treadle wheel was in fact de- signed by his sons.  Bern- ard’s grandson Simon is a renowned studio potter and teacher, still uses and promotes the treadle wheel design. They are expensive to buy, but the plans and designs are widely known and shared.

 leach-treadlewheel-pottery-blueprint-scan-copy-1.jpg    This set of scanned, hand-drawn plans hosted on a Duke University server is mentioned favorably in DIY wheel threads on several online pottery forums.

       Potter Lloyd Cledwyn hosts a site dedicated to the Leach treadle wheel, including photos of an original wheel, a high resolution scan of some early blueprints, and some nice original assembly illustrations.

       Simon Leach himself has published a large photo gallery meticulously documenting the construction of his newly-commissioned treadle wheels. Simon’s YouTube channel is also a great source of information, and features several clips detailing the assembly, history, and operation of the Leach wheel.

       Plenty of information is available, between and among the various other online resources, for potters who want to build a Leach wheel for themselves. 






Links to the other pages of this website are listed at right, under CONTENTS. View these links from the top of any page by dragging to the right the horizontal movement bar at the bottom of your screen.













Repost 0
Published by European Emigrant Heritage
write a comment