June 29 2011 4 29 /06 /June /2011 14:24

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European Emigrant Heritage

Europäische Auswanderer Erbe
Европейское Эмиграционное Наследие
Skarby Europejskich Emigrantów

European & American Unknown Family Property
 

Contact Information:
 

 

 

 

    (202) 630-1067
 




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    http://EuropeanEmigrantHeritage.eu
 



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    Please send all correspondence to 

    us by e-mail.  After 1 Jun 2017 all
    paper letters, FedEx envelopes, etc.
    will be returned to sender unopened.


 

Our e-mail address is EuropeanEmigrantHeritage@gmail.com

E-mail is immediate, postage-free communication, which helps us maintain a paperless file for your case.  Thank you.  
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    Please scan all photos, obituaries, and other
    documents, 
and send them to us as e-mail
    attachments
.  

    All modern desktop printers are a scanner.  
    Owner's manuals (paper and online) give
    scanning instructions.




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    Deliver physical items such as books and microfilm to
    700 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Washington DC 20408 USA




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    S'il vous plaît, nous envoyer lettres
    et 
documents par courrier électronique
    uniquement.

    Please send us letters and documents
    by e-mail only.









 


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Links to all 8 pages are listed in 
CONTENTS at the top right of each page (
↗).  

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June 28 2011 3 28 /06 /June /2011 22:00

What does “European Emigrant Heritage” mean?  

Let's take each word separately:  

   Euro•pe•an  Adjective  A person who was born in, or whose family originates from, Europe.  [As opposed to a person whose family originates from Asia or Africa, for example.] 

To enlarge the text of this website, in the upper right corner of your screen click options-symbol---frilled-washer.jpgwrench-copy-2.jpg, or , [click View,] and Zoom to 150%.  The CONTENTS list on the right side of this page has links to the other pages of this website.  After you have zoomed to 150%, to view CONTENTS list you will have to drag the long bar at the bottom of the screen from left to right. 

Die Familie Von Trapp     The continent of Europe presently contains the following countries: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, the Nether lands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom.

       Europe also has ethnicities, former nationalities, and cultures who do not presently have their own countries.  These include the following:

Basque, Bavarian, Bohemian, Catalan, Castillian, Celtic, Chechen, Dalmatian, Karilian, Kiev-Rus, Ladino, Moravian, Pilsner, Posner, Prussian, Ruthenian, Sardinian, Saxon, Scotch, Servian, Silesian, Slavonian, Tatar, Transylvanian, Tuscan, (and many others).   

   Em•i•grant  Noun  A person who leaves a country or region to live in another one : a person who emigrates ▪ Millions of emigrants departed from European ports between 1850 and 1920.  — compare IMMIGRANT, a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence.

waving-goodbye-1st-fairbridge-party-1938

    Her•i•tage  Noun  1.)  Property or other assets that have accrued to a particular family line, and which by law [should] descend from predecessor to living heirs.  2.)  The traditions, achievements, beliefs, crafts, etc., that are part of the history of a group or nation. ▪ a nation with a rich heritage of folklore ▪ His Polish heritage was very important to him.

Radekhiv-School-of-Art---Ukraine.P4238.jpg    Radekhiv-School-of-Art---Ukraine.P4223.jpg

    Thus European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) is exemplified by the following:

a.)  In 1943 a Polish woman died in a German labour camp.  She owned property that now should go to her closest living relatives, many second cousins living in Europe and the USA. 

Stalingrad

b.)  A German soldier died in the Siege of Stalingrad.  22 years later, in 1964, his mother died in Frankfurt, leaving valuable coin and stamp collections, that now should go to the grandchildren of the soldier, who are living in Scotland.  [Photo:  Statues in Stalingrad centre which miraculously survived the siege.]

Handcart GM + 2 girls, 1903 Surrey, Eng.-copy-1c.)  In 1974 an Italian businessman died in Argentina, leaving bank accounts there and in Switzerland, that now should go to cousins in Italy and Dayton, Ohio, who have never met him.  Results:  Inherit-ances for everyone, a trip to Italy, and a family reunion attended by the Ohio cousins, some of their children and grandchildren, and many Italian relatives.  

d.)  A French-Canadian man in Québec wished to learn of  the life, times, and culture of his paternal grandmother, who had lived in Mar-seille and gave her out-of-wedlock baby to a Catholic orph-anage.  Prior to EEH's research, the grandmother's name and what became of her were unknown to the client and his family for 99 years.  This example of EEH's work did not involve the inheritance of money or property.  This is the non-profit side of EEH, involving the 2nd definition of Heritage, above:  the traditions, Fahne Quebekachievements, beliefs, etc. that comprise the history of (in this case) the grandmother.  The client was born in Canada and had never been to France.  He was elderly and living on a small pension, but had always wanted to know about his grandmother.  EEH undertook the research at no charge, and was able to provide him with documents, newspaper items, and photographs of his grandmother's life, and a photo album to arrange them in.  Included were documents and photos of his two half-uncles and their children, half-cousins he never knew he had.  (His grandmother had later married and had two sons.)  In the following year, two of his half-cousins visited him in Québec.

What does the profit side of EEH do?

Poirot-Suchet.jpg     The for profit side of European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) conducts research that locates property and/or other assets that are unknown and unclaimed by those legally entitled to them.  Then, through genealogical research (documentary research creating a family tree), EEH identifies and locates the persons who are legally entitled to the assets.  EEH then offers to claim and recover the property and/or assets in exchange for a contingent percentage fee.  If there is nothing recovered, there is no fee. 

What does the non-profit side of EEH do?

     European Emigrant Heritage (formerly of Islington, London, England) also operates a non-profit research and cultural exchange / cultural promotion service.  Through cultural, historical, ethnographic, and genealogical research, we aid in the preservation, understanding, and appreciation of old-time European culture:  the crafts, customs, community and family ties, and ethnic/national spirit that were prevalent before the industrial revolution.1.-School-of-Art-Intro-Page.jpg

   
EEH's non-profit services are available to everyone, regardless of where they live or whether they have an unknown inheritance.  Clients pay nothing but may make a donation to the cause if they wish to do so.  Please contact us for further information if you have a specific need, request, or if you wish to help by donating time.  Also see the last page of this website: 16 ½. The CRAFTWORK INN.

     The remainder of this EEH Website Page 2. About Us deals with EEH's  profit side.

How did you find me?

      If we have contacted you regarding an inheritance, you are probably won-dering how we found you.   Here are the stages:  

I.)  EEH always begins its research by finding property or other assets which are unknown to and unclaimed by those entitled to them.  

II).  EEH then performs genealogical research to identify and find the enti-tled persons.  Genealogical research discovers small pieces of information:  names, dates, and places of births, marriages, immigrations, deaths, burials, etc.  

III.)  EEH then assembles all these pieces into a complete family tree, and contacts the living members who may be entitled to inherit.  When we began to research your family, we didn’t know your name or your parents’ names. 

Villefranche-de-Rouergue--Aveyron.jpg    EEH discovers names on many kinds of records.  For example, suppose the unknown property which EEH has discovered is ac-cruing to you through your paternal grand-mother (GM) from the death of her 2nd husband.  All we have to begin our genealogical research is GM's married name.  
      This GM may have registered to vote with the Labour Party in 1936, or received a pension from the American govern-ment for her service during the World War of 1914-18.  These records may give her birthplace as Villefranche-de-Rouergue ⟶ 

      To trace your GM, we search the records of the several parish churches in and near the VdR Commune and follow the baptismal records of several girls baptised in the days following your GM's date of birth.  One of them should be your GM.  Thus we may obtain your GM's maiden SURNAME, allowing us to find her 1st marriage to your GF, and so on, eventually leading to you.


  EEH-Research-Turns-Every-Stone-.jpg

       Genealogy involves many areas of study, including history, geography, ethnology, calligraphy, and photographic analysis.  To solve a recent case, it was necessary that we discovered that during World War II, while occupied by Nazi Germany, Villefranche housed a large 13th Waffen SS Handschar - 1st Croatian Division, consisting mainly of Bosnians.  Only this fact led to the military records identifying the deceased Frenchman’s father in Bosnia.  Bosnia at his date of birth was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (see Page 12. Historical Maps in this website).

 Helene-Christaller-05-Grossmutter-Mutter
How can you have found something when I know all my relatives and all my inheritances?


       The truth is that no one knows all their relatives.  For example, do you know the father of your paternal grandmother?  What town was this great-grandfather born in, and what were the names of his siblings, nieces, and nephews?  More importantly, if one of them died in Dover in 1974 with property, would you know of it?  

       Would your father’s cousins in Stuttgart or Cincinnati have found your father to give him his lawful share?  In the absence of family, how diligently would the local government have searched?

Simon-Wiesenthal.jpg


Who hires EEH?

       No one hires us.  We are a government licensed private company that investigates public and private records to find “errors, omissions, and frauds.” 


What kinds of cases do you handle?

       Here are some examples of the many types of unclaimed asset matters we handle:

European-Cultural-HeritageP6047.jpg1.)  Sometimes a person dies without having time to make a will or property list for his family.  We handle many research and collections for descendants of persons who died unexpectedly, often in wars and revolu-tions.  During WWII, many Jews opened accounts in Switzerland etc., then perished in concentration camps.  The governments of the several countries which became communist between 1917 (Russia) and 1948 (Czechoslo­vakia) nationalised (confiscated) many private homes and businesses.  In many of these cases, EEH has successfully claimed the assets for the living heirs.August-Gottlieb-GRIEPENTROG-1835-1918.pn

Lemburg-WWII-Dump.jpg2.)  Many Europeans and Americans who owned rental property, both before and after the bank failures of the 1920-1940 world depression, did not trust banks and collected rents in cash.  Sometimes when a man owned several properties, his wife and children were unaware of his holdings.  When he died, unless his will listed the properties he owned at death, some of his tenants merely stopped paying rent.  If they paid the property tax every year, they could remain rent-free and even pass the property on to their children.  This continues until a company such as EEH discovers it and locates the deceased owner's heirs.

 

Knut-Ekwall-s-The-Emigrants.png

 

Victorian-Handmade-Keys.jpg










Really, my family is very 
close…


Please realise that no matter how close your family is, there can always be a surprise.  You will not be inheriting from a family member with whom you are close, but rather from a family member with whom you are distant.  Perhaps you remember when US President Clinton was surprised by a man who claimed to be his half-brother (and he was!):  http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20110746,00.html 

Of course, unknown living relatives occur more frequently in non-famous families:  http://vita-brevis.org/2014/07/suspicious-first-cousin/?utm_source=twgnewsletter&utm_medium=newsletter&utm_campaign=twg699 

Unknown deceased relatives occur in all families -- For example, can you name your paternal grandfather's nieces?  (And even then, you would need their married names to find their deaths, cemeteries, offspring, etc.)
 

Why have I never heard of your type of business? 

1906-KIRCHHOFF-Karl-g.-1883-Grabstein.jp      Unknown inheritances are rare events.  Also, unknown inheritance genealogy is one of the few businesses that does not advertise.  We start with the property or other assets, and then attempt to locate lawful heirs.  [We indeed are the bearers of good news!]  We do not start with potential heirs, or people who believe they are entitled to an inheritance, so we do not advertise for those people to contact us. 

Day-11-Lesya-with-tired-eyes-a-war-arkiv  1953 Landing Permits, NY TALLAKSEN, Stanley & Martha       

James-conducting-research-2007.jpgP4574.jpg 

       The reason EEH does not attempt to find inheritances for people is that many people would want such a service, but very few of them have inheritances out there waiting for them.  Many people will tell you that they were supposed to inherit from their GM's (grandmother’s) 10 Million Kroner estate, or that that their GGF was a New York banker who made $Millions and deposited it all in a bank in Dallas, TX before his untimely death.  We learnt many years ago that most of these family legends are untrue, and that is why we always start with the property, not with the heirs.  Below are some properties we researched and found that they were in possession of persons or entities not the lawful owners.  We then performed genealogical research, identified and located unknown heirs, and retrieved the below types of properties for them, among others.  Some of the below photos don't show the actual property retrieved, but are close representatives:

Dvoretz-neizvestnogo-vladeltsa.jpg 

  Schweitz-Schlie-fach.jpg 

1905-Chemins-de-Fer-Midi-It.--250-Action

1867-Whitwell-F.R.-Deed-Connecticut.jpg

 

 

    1935-DE-5-Reichsmark-Goldm-nze.jpg 

James-in-France-2001.jpg

 

        Fraud Warning, side 1   

 

Can I lose any money?

 

       A basic principle of our work is that our clients never pay any money.  This assures them that we are honest.  Dishonest programmes have one thing in common:  You pay money.  Our only fee is a percentage of what we actually recover for you.  You never pay any money, so there is no way you can lose any money.  You can only gain.

Fraud Warning, side 2



Do you take any fees & costs from the inheritance before comupting my 2/3 share?    

     No, we don't.  This is a good question not often asked.  European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) receives only it's 1/3 fee.  We spend on average over £5,000 on those inquiries that reach advanced research stage, to purchase birth, marriage, death and other records, for remote research and researcher fees, our own travel expenses, database fees, etc.  Rather than deduct these expenses "off the top" of the recovered inheritance, EEH pays them from its own funds, without reimbursement from anyone, regard- less of the outcome of the inheritance claim.  These are our costs of doing business, investments we are willing to risk for inheritance claims we believe are valid.  Like Mr. Bond, we must know when to bet and when to fold.  

Abandoned-Mansion.jpg


What fraction of the inheritance will
I receive?

 
The fraction depends on your 
place on the family tree in relation
to the original owner of the asset. 

It also depends on how many 
other heirs there are. 

These are mathematical questions. 
If a grandfather dies leaving
two daughters, and two grandsons
(sons of a deceased daughter),
the fractions taken by these four 
are set by law.  Usually:
The daughters each take 1/3. 
The grandson’s each take 1/6
because they divide the 1/3 share of
their deceased mother between them. 
In some countries, 
half blood relatives take half shares,
and in other countries full shares.
The son of your GM’s half-sister
is your half-great-uncle.


Is it land?  Is it more than $5,000? 
Is it in Germany? 

     European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) has a policy not to answer such questions until we have located all the heirs and they have either signed our agreement or renounced the inheritance.  The reason for this is to insure that we are paid for our work. 

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Was war, schläft... aber kann aufwachen. 
That which was, sleeps... but can awaken.
The motto of our c
ompany, European Emigrant Heritage
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What if I sign the Agreement but my sister doesn’t?

       The majority of people offered our Agreement sign it.  When someone declines to sign, they are left out of the inheritance.  This makes the inheritance shares of those who sign larger.  You may never have heard of many of your fellow inheritors.  Your relatives may be as far flung as Connecticut, (Old) York, New York, Sydney, and Buenos Aires.  Please be assured you have never met most of your living relatives:

Fellow-Inheritors--Chernigiv--UA.jpg 

Table-consanguinity-cropped.jpg 

How do I know EEH will give me my share?

       EEH never handles your money.  The solicitorRUMPOLE-of-the-Bailey.jpgserving as administrator of the fund holds the money in a separate account he maintains solely for this purpose.  He calculates the tax due, the calculation is ratified by the Collector of Taxes, and the tax is paid from the account, prior to calculating EEH's percentage fee.  The solicitor then sends you your cheque, and EEH its cheque.  

Who pays for the solicitor?  

       All legal fees and costs are paid from the recovery, before EEH's fee is calculated.  The solicitor's fee is 3% of the inher-itance he is able to recover.  If he is unable to recover anything, his fee is zero.  In rare cases of extensive litigation, the 3% is increased.  In no case do you ever pay anything out of your own pocket.  Since you never pay anything, you can never lose anything.

Are there any guarantees?

       EEH can give no guarantee that our attempt to recover your family's assets will be successful, because unforeseen circumstances may prevent it.  For example, a person or persons more closely related to the original owner of the asset may be found.  Or a mortgage or tax lien may be asserted against the property.  What we do guarantee is this:  WE WILL DO THE BEST WE CAN TO PROVE, MAXIMISE, AND EXPEDITE YOUR INHERITANCE, AND AT NO TIME WILL YOU BE REQUIRED TO PAY  A PENNY OUT OF YOUR OWN POCKET.

Heb.-tombstones--Gorlice.jpg
What if the debts exceed the assets?

       Let's suppose  that the asset accruing to your family is a parcel of land worth €100.000.  If the land is encumbered by a €30.000 mortgage and a €40.000 lien for back taxes, the net recovery would be €30.000, and EEH's percentage would be calculated only on that  €30.000.  Supposing however that the back taxes were €120.000, so that there is nothing to recover.  In that event, you would receive nothing, and EEH would receive its percentage of nothing, i.e., nothing.  Part of the taxes would remain unpaid, but neither you nor EEH would be responsible for paying them.  One is not responsible for the debts of a deceased relative; debts are not inherited.

Is-this-the-right-Olga.jpgHow does genealogical research work? 

     Here is a typical example.  The research of a Philip LEOPOLD uncovers that his original surname was LEPAR and that he was born in Kriukai, Lithuania, the son of Yehuda-Leib LEPAR.  This is confirmed by a search in the All-Lithuania Database (ALD) and turns up several LEPAR families in Kriukai, Lithuania and neighbouring villages.

       In order to find the descendants of the original great-grandfather, Amiel LEPAR, it was necessary to hire the entire class of a professor of history in a nearby university, to locate the tombstones in question.  These enthusiastic students walked hundreds of cemetery rows and transcribed over 8,000 tombstones!  Even so, it would not have been possible to solve this case without an index, the Kovno-Slatis cemetery list, which was produced by the "Chevren Kadisha," the burial society of Viliampolka.  This index does not cover the entire cemetery, but is an index showing the names, section and row numbers of those who died in the Ghetto between 1941and 1943, a period which contained many of the key deaths in the family.

LEOPOLD-Wedding-2-.jpgThe wedding photograph shown to the left was accepted as evidence in the Austrian court of inheritance as the wedding of Harry KOWEN and Dolly LEOPOLD, who were the grandparents of Mervyn ______, one of the heirs in the case.  The seven LEOPOLD sisters are shown in the photo-graph.  The face of the groom was adjudged to match the German work permit card.

Many of the genealogical records in the above LEP-AR/LEOPOLD case were in German because those parts of Bosnia in which the family resided were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire prior to 1919.  To understand these records one must acquire the ability to read Sütterlinschrift (Sutterlin handwriting), in which the German language of that period was beautifully written:

Sutterlin.gif

       Another example is a case EEH recently worked in Siberia.  The following is taken from a letter written by James Hannum of EEH: 

Omsk-bazaar.jpg...Our original proof packet translated the words село (selo) and деревня (derevnya) as “village.”  Because there is an important genealogical difference between a selo and a derevnya, the words should not be translated but should instead be transliterated into the Roman Alphabet and separately defined.  According to Vladimir Dahl’s magnum opus, Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language, which was published in 4 huge volumes in 1863, the definition of “selo” is “A place built and settled by peasants in which there is a church, and sometimes selo consists of many scattered derevnyas all belonging to one congregation and one church.”  The definition of derevnya is “Peasant settlement in which there is no church.”  As you will note from the enclosed revised proofs, the phrases “Village of Petroselki” and “Village of Molotychi ” have been changed to “Petroselki Derevnyaand Molotychi Selo.  Given that they are only three miles apart (Our Proof #25, Petroselki and Molotychi Satellite Map), the fact that all derevnyas had to belong to a selo so that its residents would have a church, and Dahl’s above definitions, we conclude that Petroselki Derevnya belonged to Molotychi Selo.  Thus Grigoriy could say he resided in either place. 

      It is obvious that Grigoriy KORNEEV and Grigoriy ABALMASOV are the same man. Consider:

  1. Grigoriy KORNEEV and Grigoriy ABALMASOV are both shown in the above records having the same patronymic name, Kuzmin, meaning “son of Kuzma.”  The given name “Kuzma” is now, and was in 19th Century Russia, a fairly rare name. 

  2. Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV came from Petroselki Derevnya, Fatezhskiy Uyezd, Kursk Guberniya.  (Our Proof #1).
    Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV came from the Molotychi Selo, Fatezhskiy Uyezd, Kursk Guberniya.  (Our Proof #2).

  3. Since Petroselki Derevnya belonged to Molotychi Selo, a man from Petroselki Derevnya could say he was from either place.

  4.  Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV and Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV both arrived in Siberia in 1896.

  5. Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV and Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV lived in the same tiny place, Belovodovskoye Settlement, Mariinsk Okrug, Tomsk Guberniya, Siberia.

  6. After 1896, Grigoriy Kuzmin ABALMASOV never again used the surname KORNEEV, and the name Grigoriy Kuzmin KORNEEV never appears again in the record books.

     In the 1916 Agricultural Census (our Proof #24), taken twenty years after the above Petition for Money, Grigoriy’s family is listed as ABALMASOV; there is no Grigoriy KORNEEV or Petr KORNEEV in the 1916 Census...  

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Examples of proofs EEH presented in the above case:

27.-2008-Distance-Petroselki-to-Belovodo

 

25.-2008-Petroselki-and-Molotychi-Satell

 

2-1896-ABOLMASOV-Grigori-Pg-1-of-Petitio

 

4.-1916-Belovodovskoe-Agricultural-Censu

5.-1925-ZELENKOV-Vasili-N.-Birth.jpg

 

                                                                 _______________________________ 


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Repost 0
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June 28 2011 3 28 /06 /June /2011 20:57

The following is extracted from a brief to parliament by British Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont.  

Types of Assets, Avoiding Scams - 7 May 1993

Finding Dormant Bank Accounts

There has been a rise in the number of companies that provide unclaimed money tracking services. Companies such as The Abandoned Property Registry, The Railway Stocks Registry, European Emigrant Heritage, and others will, for a fee, track down dormant accounts, pensions and investments... If you or an older or deceased family member have changed jobs or mailing addresses one or more times, it is possible that there are account(s) now lying dormant. Claimants who find they are entitled to unclaimed funds may also be entitled to interest...

Premium Bonds

Premium bonds account for approximately £3.6 million in unclaimed funds in the UK...     Unclaimed money researchers sometimes do locate such funds, discover their unclaimed status, and reconnect people with unclaimed premium bonds funds for a fee. There is no time limit on the redemption of premium bonds...

Former Soldiers' Pensions

Former soldiers may not have made a claim for a pension to which they were entitled, or may not know that they were entitled to extra pension funds because they had had tax deducted by the Ministry of Defence. Pensions to former soldiers are tax free if they were granted due to medical unfitness as a result of war service. Over 3,000 former soldiers have reclaimed over £7 million in rebates to date...  

Tracking Down an Inheritance

You should bear in mind that a common reason that such assets have gone unclaimed is that the original party, or his/her relatives entitled to claim his/her assets, are elderly or deceased... For the past many centuries, thousands of people have died every year without leaving a will, i.e., they die intestate. Since the passing of the inheritance acts in the 1560's, if beneficiaries cannot be found, the estate assets after the payment of lawful debts of the decedent escheat to the Crown/Treasury. Currently the Treasury Solicitor advertises in various newspapers asking for beneficiaries to come forward... As of 31 December 1991 the amount left unclaimed for the fifteen year period came to £12,059,862... The Treasury Solicitor is required to list accounts fifteen years old or less in one of the public registers. Checking the registers, either by visiting his London office or by sending a letter requesting that the registers be checked, and also checking the national and local newspapers in the areas inhabited by yourself and your older or deceased family members, are possible methods of finding such assets without paying a fee... Some locator firms in the past have requested advances for legal fees, filing costs, etc., and some have failed to return the advanced sums in the event of the failure of the inheritance claim. It is almost certainly a bad decision to give the locator firm money in advance of your personal and verified receipt of the inheritance funds. By "receipt" we mean that the locator's cheque has been negotiated against locator's bank, the funds paid to your bank and standing in your account without limitation or "hold." In the case of bank wire transfer, the transfer should be received by your bank and standing in your account without limitation or "hold." It is not enough that you or your bank receive notice that the funds are available, have been paid, or that the wire has been sent

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Limitations of EEH Research

       Many people contact us with requests like the below letter:  

...I am writing to inquire whether I may engage your services in a difficult research area of my family.  We are looking for descendants of four SHAW sisters, orphaned as children in 1890. They were taken into care by Quarrier's Homes in Bridge of Weir, Scotland, and later sent to Canada.
Children of John SHAW and Margaret STEWART (or STUART), their mother died in 1883 and their father in 1890. They were taken into care in 1890/91.
Elizabeth (Lizzie) SHAW was sent to Canada in May 1891, aged 12. By 1926 she had married a Mr GIBSON. Perhaps in Toronto.
Annie SHAW was sent to Canada in May 1892, aged 17. She later married there.
Mary Jane SHAW, later known as Jane, was sent to Canada in June 1897, aged 16. She returned to Scotland in 1905 to work in service for 12 months, but went back to Canada in June 1906.
Jemima SHAW was sent to Canada in June 1894, aged 10. She was living in Toronto in 1926.
I also have information about two elder sisters who remained in Scotland and never married...

       European Emigrant Heritage does not undertake recreational or hobby genealogical research, nor research requested by persons about their own families.  We begin our research cases only with the discovery of assets whose legal owners are unknown.

       We also decline to undertake research for prospective or hopeful heirs, despite the fact that they have personal beliefs, or possess family lore or legends, that they are entitled to inherit from a deceased relative, and that through oversight or fraud they did not receive their rightful inheritance. 

       We learned the lesson long ago at European Emigrant Heritiage to "never give up" when looking for solutions to genealogical research problems.  "Never give up" became one of our mottos, that when the research was tough, one of us would say it to the others, to encourage them.  It's too easy to say, "this case has no solution" or "cross off that branch of the family" because they moved, perhaps all died, no one remembers them, no evidence they had issue, etc. Of course, we often do have to give up, lest we be stuck working on a case for ten years, but we must strictly analyze the research potential of any inquiry before dropping it.

_____________________________


EEH Never Gives Up

       The below amazing story validates the "never give up" motto, and there are many like it.  Often just shelving a case for a couple years until records are scanned and indexed, results in solving "unsolvable" problems.  These Red Cross records allowed us to solve two separate estate inquiries, allowing the estates of the outstanding WWI decedents to be distributed to collateral kin.  [Proving their death in the War, added to their military records showing single marital status, foreclosed the possibility that they later married and left issue.]

London Daily Mail (Newspaper)  13 March 2009   by Alexandra Williams

Unknown no longer: thousands of WW1 dead could at last be identified
 
Red-Cross-basement-archive--death-burial--capture-of-23--mi.jpg War graves in France

     Peter Barton's discovery could lead to thousands of soldiers being identified, years after they fell in battle. They are the nameless heroes buried in anonymous graves during and after the carnage of the Great War. For nine decades their last resting place has been marked simply "records" with the words 'Unknown Soldier' or 'Known Only Unto God'. But thousands may soon be identified after the discovery of a vast forgotten archive. For British families who know they have a relative who died or went missing in the 'war to end all wars', but have never been able to pinpoint their remains, the discovery could at last provide some comfort.

     British historian Peter Barton unearthed the archive, virtually untouched since 1918, in the basement of the Red Cross headquarters in Geneva (above photo). The organisation knew it had a vast amount of information there, but Mr Barton is the first to study it in detail. It documents information about the death, burial or capture of more than 20million soldiers from 30 countries who took part in the Great War.

     Carefully entered on card indexes or written into ledgers, the details include name, rank, unit, time of death, exact burial location, home addresses and next of kin. The information has the potential to pinpoint unmarked graves along the Western Front and other battlefields, and could mean headstones which currently mark the grave of an unknown soldier will finally bear a name. It also paves the way for families to complete the history of relatives who died in the bitter trench fighting.
So-many-thousands-burried-in-unmarked-graves.jpg
The basement of the Red Cross headquarters in Geneva homed a long-forgotten archive detailing information about the death, burial and capture of more than 20 million soldiers from 30 countries involved in the First World War. 

 


Thousands of First World War soldiers from both sides are buried in unmarked graves

     Some of the records, in immaculate condition, refer to the sites of mass graves where the bodies of soldiers were piled alongside each other.

Historian-Peter-Barton--a-colleague-of-EEH--was-given-acces.jpg

      They give detailed directions about where they were dug - many have since been overgrown or built on - and include details which could lead to the identification of soldiers buried in them. 'The emergence of this archive is hugely important,' said Mr Barton. 'It will change the way we look at World War One.
 
      Historian Peter Barton was given access to the archive which has remained untouched since 1918. 
'To a military historian it's like finding Tutankhamun's tomb and the Terracotta Warriors  on the same day.'

'This archive has been hidden away - not deliberately - for 90 years. We historians just did not know that this existed. The Red Cross tells me I am the first researcher who has ever asked to see it.' Mr Barton, a First World War historian and author, stumbled across the records after being commissioned by the Australian government to find the identities of soldiers found at Pheasant Wood, Fromelles, France.

      The trail led him to the Red Cross Museum in Geneva where he was given access to their basement. The records were passed to the Red Cross by the combatant countries at the end of the war.

      The Red Cross acted as a go between for the protagonists. Information was then copied and passed to the soldiers' home countries but, according to Mr Barton, the UK's copy of the data no longer exists, much of it having been destroyed in the Second World War. The same fate is believed to have befallen the records in France and Germany.

Red-Cross-workers--pictured-during-the-war-copy-1.jpg        The Red Cross is already working to bring the archive into the computer age. The organisation has set aside £2.4 million to con- serve and digitise the paper records. The project will begin in  autumn and will involve experts from around Europe. The Red Cross hopes to have the archive online by 2014, the cent enary of the Great War. 

'We want to archive these records because it will be far easier for families to access the information they require,' said a Red Cross spokesman. 'They hold an incredible amount of detail.'

________________________________

 

 REPORT OF VICE-PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL ON INHERITANCE JUSTICE, AUG 17, 1989

Extracts From Attached Report of Citizens Advisory Committees Re Unclaimed Property

...Under federal laws currently in effect, and under the laws of almost every US state and local government, personal property is considered unclaimed when contact with the lawful owner is lost for a designated period varying between five and one hundred years, depending on the jurisdiction.  

…[Contact] is usually lost due to the death of the lawful owner or his spouse, next of kin, or designated beneficiary, (hereinafter collectively referred to as “lawful owner”), although [contact] may also be lost due to the lawful owner's mental incapacity or simple forgetfulness.  Other factors which may disrupt [contact] are the lawful owner's name change after marriage or divorce, and unreported changes of address or expired postal forwarding orders.  Finally, either the lawful owner or the original holder of the property may make mistakes in the records under their control, by losing all or part of the records or maintaining inaccurate records. 

…The original holders of unclaimed funds are usually banks, investment brokers, auction houses, employers, life and casualty insurance companies, and government agencies...  Upon expiry of the period of years prescribed in the applicable unclaimed property law, these original holders are required to transfer custody, and eventually exclusive ownership (either by law or practicality),  to the governmental unclaimed property agency, through the legal processes of transfer and escheat…  Almost all of these governmental agencies make an organized effort to locate and notify the lawful owners, beneficiaries, and heirs, and over 80% of the agencies periodically publish unclaimed property name lists in newspapers of general circulation...

 The results from these efforts is substantial, and largely as a result of these efforts,  approximately 24% of the nationwide total of property held by these governmental agencies are claimed by the lawful owners, beneficiaries, and heirs.  In a similar study to ours, the Department of the Treasury reported in 1935 that 51% of the nationwide total of property was returned to the lawful owners, and perhaps the decline of success from 51% in 1935 and 24% in 1988 is attributable to the greatly increased dollar size of the unclaimed property accounts,  and the current shortfall of funding for the governmental agencies efforts to locate the lawful owners...

...There is now, and there has always been as far as we can determine, little or no effort undertaken by the private (non-governmental) property holders, to locate and notify the lawful owners of the dormant property they hold.  Nor are there in the vast majority of the states and local governments (including DC), laws or infrastructure in place to compel or facilitate these private holders to publicize their holdings or otherwise attempt to discover and notify the lawful owners.  This lack of laws and infrastructure is unfortunate because in most cases of [lost contact], the possibility of re-establishing [contact] is greatest during the years immediately following the [loss of contact].  
   Vice Pres. Dan Quayle

...The largest exception in most jurisdictions to the legal requirement that holders of unclaimed property transfer and escheat the property to the government, is the case of [loss of contact] between defunct railroads and their stockholders, when the right to participate in the proceeds from the sale of still existing rights-of-way to developers result in the shares obtaining value, without a physical fund of money.  Since defunct railroads have stopped paying dividends, there are no accrued dividends to transfer or escheat...  [T]he stockholder may have discarded and/or forgotten about his stocks.  In most states only those stockholders who learn of the opportunity and come forward will participate, and there are no laws we have been able to locate requiring transfer or escheat of pro-rated right-of-way sales proceeds, for the non-claiming shares.  It is the opinion of the VPC legal counsel (Attachment D), that the lack of adequate laws or infrastructure compelling the purchasers or the sellers of the rights-of-way to publish an announcement of the sale and a list of the stock owners in newspapers of general circulation, constitutes th
e taking of property without due process of law in violation of the US Constitution.


…There is no data on how much property is successfully reclaimed by the lawful owners from the original holders, prior to the holders transferring the property to the governmental agencies...  Based upon inquiries which VPC has completed, successful property claims to federal, state, and local unclaimed property agencies are less than 29% of the nationwide total of property.  (This percentage assumes that accounts that remained unclaimed more than fifteen years will never be claimed, which is supported by the history of older dormant accounts from the period 1922 to 1973).

_____________________________________________________

Pegasus -- The Travelling People

The many emigrants we at European Emigrant Heritage have researched over the years remind me of the below excellant poem and song.  Nowadays it takes a truck and a week's work to move a family, what with all the modern possessions.  In years past people had little to move, and the emigrants across the sea had the least of all.  Going backwards and forward in our research it's often difficult to discover from whence these travellers came and whither they went.  When they arrived in the new abode, they usually moved from one address to another once a year or so.  Many spelled their names more than one way and gave a half dozen different years of birth for themselves.  All this made these rambling people, hard to follow through the records.

________________________________________________________________.
 

 

To those who value their European heritage,

to those who are fascinated & enthralled with culture,

the preservation & enhancement of TRADITION is all important.

No better example can be found than "Fiddler on the Roof"  


  __________________________________

   A culture is continued one act at a time, one little piece at a time.

   Here is a piece that will last a lifetime, the hand-carved cooking spoon.

   This spoon and its maker are part of our European heritage:


 

  __________________________________

 


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Zwanzig-Reichsmark-NSDAP.jpg 

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

        Before we discuss war assets, which have been EEH's most successful area of research to date, let's enjoy learning a thing or two about one of the many pillars of culture, basket weaving.  For as much money as Messrs. Hitler, Mussolini, et al. stole from us during the wars, life is not really about money, is it?     

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

 

WAR ASSETS

         For several years, the controversy over Switzerland's role in World War II raged in the media, among thousands of possible claimants and their attorneys, and between nations. Questions have been raised concerning dormant Swiss bank accounts, Nazi gold, and property confiscated and stolen during by the German Third Reich.

 

Refugees

Their-home---money-taken--Koln-1941.jpgBeginning in September 1939, Hitler swiftly conquered country after country within Europe. By June 1941, Switzerland's neutrality became a beacon of hope. Increasingly severe restrictions and persecution of Jews caused many to search for safety. Thousands of Jews tried to hide themselves as well as their money in Switzerland.

Schweitzer Hundert FrankenAs Jews reached Switzerland's borders they were turned away. It had become easy to recognize Jewish passports since Germany had begun affixing German Jewish passports with the letter "J" for "Jude" ("Jew" in German) in 1938. The Germans did this at Switzerland's request for an easier way to identify Jews coming to its borders. 

Hitler-u-Goring-mit-gestohlenen-Kunstwerken.jpgIn the summer of 1942, when the mass deportations had begun taking millions to their deaths in camps, Switzerland closed its borders completely to all refugees. Though contemporary views of this action question Switzerland's intentions, Switzerland was not the only nation to close their borders to Jews during the war and the United States and Great Britain are prime examples. However, it was Switzerland's wartime policies that had the biggest impact on those attempting to escape the Third Reich, because it was much more difficult to immigrate to Britain and the US than it was to immigrate to Switzerland, which is located in the centre of Europe and borders six countries.)

 

Nazi Gold and Loot

Arbeitslager.jpgDuring the war, the Nazis stole gold, jewellery, homes, factories, artwork, and other valuables from the millions of Jews they murdered. They also looted (stole) large amounts of valuables from non-Jews in the countries they occupied (France, Belgium, Poland, Lithuania, etc.).  The Germans needed a way to place these commodities in the international market so that they could use the money they received in exchange for their war effort. The Swiss helped facilitate the exchange in addition to holding Nazi accounts. Many speculate that some of the gold that the Swiss accepted were the dental gold and wedding rings taken from Jews at the camps.  If a Jewish or Belgian homeowner was killed, died in battle or bombing, or disappeared, the German government simply took the home.

 

Bank Accounts

Many Jews never physically attempted to reach Switzerland, but attempted to protect their money by opening Swiss bank accounts. Many Jews who opened these accounts perished in the Holocaust.

GM-General-Motors-Opel-Nazi-Germany-Wehrmacht-Adolf-Hitler-.jpgThere are many survivors who remembered that their parents or uncles opened accounts, but they didn't know the name of the bank, the account numbers nor have any paperwork concerning the accounts, so they were turned away from the banks after the war. Far more knew nothing at all about their relatives' monetary holdings; it was safer not to tell anyone that one had broken German law by taking money out of the country.  Some Swiss banks requested death certificates of the account holder before they would allow the survivors to access the money, even in cases where the survivors had the secret account numbers and exact address of the bank. This was a completely unreasonable request since millions were murdered in the Holocaust with no official record of their deaths.
 

Claims

Belgian-Jews-wearing-the-star-of-David.jpgFor several decades after the war, individual survivors petitioned and requested information about these accounts with little to no success. The vast majority of claimants, over time, simply gave up.  In 1974, the Swiss announced that they found 4.68 million Swiss francs in dormant accounts. This money was divided between two Swiss relief agencies and to the Polish and Hungarian governments.  Jewish experts claimed this was only a small fraction of the money in the accounts.

In 1996, U.S. Senator Alfonse D'Amato (R-NY) brought the subject of the dormant accounts to the U.S. government's attention, and hearings were started to unearth the truth about the survivors' claims. Pressure from the United States has angered the Swiss, who feel that this is an attack upon their reputation for the benefit of U.S. banking agencies.

Christoph Meili 1997The questions concerning the morality of the Swiss during the war came into the public limelight when a night security guard at a Swiss bank noticed on January 14, 1997 a large bin of old documents pertaining to Nazi and wartime accounts waiting to be shredded. The Swiss claim that these were of no interest to the hearings.

On January 29, 1997, the US Congress considered boycotting Swiss banks. (A "Washington insider" remarked that Switzerland would never believe the threat, due to the $Billions held in secret numbered Swiss accounts belonging to US congressmen, cabinet members, and other corrupt US officials.)  Perhaps the Swiss did give some credence to the threat, for eight days later, three Swiss banks announced that they would create a humanitarian fund of 100 million Swiss francs (U.S. $70 million).  Although this fund was criticized as being much too small, and not going to the depositors' families, there was no boycott.

NSDAP Arbeitslager Majdanek-1Since the overwhelming majority of the Jews who opened Swiss bank accounts died during the war, and the export of money out of Germany and Austria was a heavily punished crime, and no accurate figures about the total amount of money Jews really placed within the Swiss banks. Jewish organisations believe there could be tens of $Billions, while the Swiss have only disclosed several million. Since most Jews residing in Europe in 1940 had been killed by the end of the war in 1945, in most families both the father and mother and all their children, and often all the siblings of the father and mother, were dead.  If the father in such a family had a Swiss account, his closest surviving family member would be a cousin, and few elderly cousins now come forward to make claims. 

Union-de-Banques-Suisses.jpgMost recently, in June, the Swiss government announced that it would establish a $5 Billion humanitarian foundation.

But what about the survivors of the Holocaust whose families' entire fortunes were stored in Swiss accounts? On July 23, 1997, the Swiss produced a list of dormant accounts that is accessible to the public. The list contains names, and often complete pre-1945 depositors' addresses, but no money amounts. Any person or entity with a valid claim on these accounts may go through an accounting firm and then an international panel, by which it will be decided whether or not there is sufficient written evidence and/or oral testimony, and also sufficient genealogical documentation, to support each claim.

Luzerner-Anspruche-Bedienfeld.jpg
 

close-up-of-an-old-wooden-door.jpg

______________________

 

World War I "Assets" and  European Emigrant Heritage

Assets from WWI recovered by EEH consist of bank accounts, insurance policies, stocks & bonds (including government issued), real property (land & its improvements), mines, mining rights, and mining dividends (liquidated and accrued).  While not as frequent as WW II asset recovery, these recovered assets have totalled over £7,000,000 by 2010.  

Lest we overemphasize the pecuniary losses sustained in WWI, "the Great War" as it was called until circa 1942, did indeed cause hundreds of £Billions in property damage and ruined lives and work careers.  Crops destroyed, to deprive advancing armies of sustinance, and several years of no crops planted, alone caused staggering losses and suffering in Europe (and to a lesser extent, the US, where returning soldiers had often not enough left of their army wages to buy seed or clothing to restart their disrupted economic lives.) 

The devastation by death, carnage, and war-caused diseases, was a thousand times worse than all the economic losses and property damage combined.  The below well thought out review is worth the read; it will fill in the blanks left by western education.
 

BOOK REVIEW
             The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 

                                                                                                   by T. Christianson (2013) 

There are many things that can be done while one is asleep. Bellini wrote a delightful opera about somnambulism. However it is difficult to share the same sense of fascination or repose even a century after the outbreak of the Great War. Somehow it defies any standard of human sensitivity to allude to the acts and omissions leading to the millions of slaughtered men and boys at the hands of the greediest financial and industrial elites known to recorded history as the result of "sleepwalking".


Consider the most peculiar omission in this prize-winning story written by a young man from the Dominions: that the author has managed to write over 500 pages about the Great War without scarcely more than ten pages about the British Empire-- then the undisputed world power (not unlike its North American cousin today). All the attention is focussed on Sir Edward Grey, HM Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1905 until 1916.


Strangely enough the name "Grey group" is used as attribution for Britain's foreign policy. Although many of the British sources cited in The Sleepwalkers should more appropriately be attributed to the Milner Group (for those uninitiated this is the closely-knit group of primarily Oxonians who initially joined Cecil Rhodes, Alfred Milner (Secretary of State for War under Lloyd George) and together with the Lord Salisbury were the most powerful force in British imperial politics at least until the end of World War I):


"Grey was not the puppet-master; the men of the new policy-- Bertie, Hardinge, Mallet, Tyrrell and so on-- were not manipulated or controlled by him, but worked alongside him as the members of a loose coalition driven by shared sentiments. Indeed, Grey was quite dependent on some of these collaborators-- many of his decisions and memoranda, for example, were modeled closely on reports from Hardinge." (p. 202)


Who these collaborators were has already been explained by Carroll Quigley in his 1981 (posthumous) study of the Anglo-American Establishment. Quigley-- far from a hostile scholar-- objected that by means of entrenched control/ influence of the principal academic institutions and publishers this group concentrated in the Rhodes Trust and certain Oxford colleges have been able to write their own history for the public and suppress any other views. The Sleepwalkers is another proof that Anglo-American historical scholarship regarding British imperial history is still tightly controlled. At the latest after the discrediting of Mr Tony Blair for his willful deceits to promote the recent Gulf Wars, skepticism ought to be warranted when examining the statements and acts of HM Government when it comes to wars.


As Quigley noted-- and anyone who has held genuinely non-conformist academic opinions will have experienced-- the best way to suppress uncomfortable or disagreeable facts is to ignore them. The Sleepwalkers might be viewed as a naive piece of work from a young scholar from down under. However such naiveté or careless omission of the world's great power in 1914 has been amply rewarded-- the author recently received a royal (Regius) chair in history at Cambridge-- as did most of the official historians of the Milner Group.


However a more important issue than the scholarly neglect of the most important power in the world at that time and the most important group of collaborators with Sir Edward Grey is why this book appears now and why has it been so thoroughly promoted in Germany. It is true that the author, who spent several years at the Free University of Berlin and wrote several books about Prussia, has spent enough time on his subject to warrant writing about the end of Prussia as a polity. However just as no one seriously doubts that Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire was written as an imperial textbook and that the Classics were developed as a discipline in England and Göttingen to supply scholarship to defend European colonialism (see here Martin Bernal's Black Athena), it is worth asking what policy purpose The Sleepwalkers is intended to defend.


Great Britain has pursued two consistent foreign policy principles since the French Revolution. The first is to control the seas and the access to cheap (or free) raw materials (including labour) throughout the world. The second has been to keep Europe divided against itself both to assure access to its markets and to weaken potential imperial competitors. This was a policy understood even in those ancient days before NATO or the European Union. It was one of the main reasons that England was called "perfidious Albion" on the Continent. This meant that the British Empire governed by playing its European competitors against each other.


In Germany The Sleepwalkers has been received either as a welcome relief or a naive attempt to make German militarism seem innocuous or unintentional in the months leading up to July and August 1914. How does the author attempt to relieve Germany of its historical war "guilt"? The answer is rather simple and therein lies the ground for suspicion. The author explains that in essence Germany's leaders did not understand the gravity of the Serbian "threat".


This is a serious shift in the World War I narrative that is by no means accidental. 1991 was the year in which German foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher unleashed what became a vicious aerial bombardment of Serbia and the destruction of Yugoslavia, commencing with his recognition of Croatia's independence. By the time NATO bombs ceased to fall on Serbia, there was no Yugoslavia and the way was cleared for one of Europe's biggest contraband trafficking hubs under NATO management: Kosovo. Back then the media was full of reports about how horrid Serbs were and the danger that Russia would feel obliged to defend the Serbian state. It didn't and everyone was relieved. Today in the Ukraine NATO is engaged in overt and covert operations to separate the country from what the West would call "Russia's sphere of influence". There is every indication among the mass of Germans that they disapprove of this indirect attack on Russia. Nonetheless the German mass media has been entirely on the side of NATO, condemning everyone who dissents as a "Putin-Versteher" (someone who "understand" Putin).


After some ten years of virtually silent deployment of German armed forces in Afghanistan to provide support to the CIA's war there, it now appears as if European NATO units may be necessary to support the right-wing usurpers that have ruled in Kiev since last year. There are two ways to justify this short of an outright attack by Russian forces-- still unlikely since Putin has continuously resisted every provocation to date. One involves absolving the remaining guilty consciences among Germany's elite and the middle class that supports it, thus making outright war seem civilized again. The other complementary approach is to reiterate that it is not Germany (or any other NATO power) that is escalating the crisis but Slavs-- Ukrainians who sympathize with Russia or even consider themselves to be Russian (like so many West Germans seem to think they are Americans). By reminding the educated German that World War I was caused by Serbs and Russians, it is not far fetched to adopt the position that Russia still protects those Slavs who are essentially the cause of the Great War (and if we wait long enough, also caused World War II).


The Sleepwalkers is written like a plenary indulgence granted by the unnamed Anglo-American elite that has profited from every major European war in the 20th century to those whom it would recruit again in its "association of helpers"-- witting and unwitting instruments of neo-imperialism (aka globalisation).


By ignoring any serious discussion of British Empire, its ruling elite, or the global economic and psychological warfare that was waged by it against its European competitors in the years between 1871 and 1914, this book shows that it is the author who was probably sleepwalking, not the European imperialists (today called the financial elite or the "1%-ers,") who together with Great Britain, through their puppets the politicians wantonly slaughtered more than 4 million people for their personal profit and power. Hundreds of thousands in the bloody carnage were women and children, just as in the US dronings, bombings, invasions, and occupations of Iraq, Libya, etc.  For the record World War I was fought by six empires: the British Empire, the American Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Three were destroyed and two became vassals of the USA. It is a good time for all of us to wake up.

                                   __________________________________________


Historical Maps

       A genealogist must know town, city, & country name changes and border changes.  If a funeral home record says that a person was born "1880 Russia," there is a good chance that his birthplace today is in Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, etc.  This is because in 1880 the Russian Empire contained those places.  If a baptismal record states that someone was born in Breslau, Germany, beware! you will find Breslau only on a pre-1945 map; it is today the large city of Wrocław.  
 

Map of Europe in 1800:



Germany 1916:


Between 1815 and 1921, Poland was divided into thirds, each controlled by a different empire:




Poland after 1945:


Ukraine circa 1750, 1850:




Ukraine 2003 & Today:

 

  ____________________________

Cultural heritage is made of many little pieces.  

Attention and patience builds what has value and lasts. 

So with the long-developed cottage craft of weaving:

    _____________________________

 

Belarus circa 1890:


Belarus' Expansion of Borders 1921-1926:

W. Belarus under Polish 1921-1939:

Belarus SSR (Soviet Socialist Republic) 1940:


Belarus 1992, showing Oblasti and Railroads:







 

The Immigrant's Song

Let us not speak of those days 
  when coffee beans filled the morning 
 with hope, when our mothers' headscarves 
      hung like white flags on washing lines. 
 Let us not speak of the long arms of sky 
     that used to cradle us at dusk. 
       And the baobabs—let us not trace 
        the shape of their leaves in our dreams, 
     or yearn for the noise of those nameless birds 
        that sang and died in the church's eaves. 
Let us not speak of men, 
  stolen from their beds at night. 
   Let us not say the word 
                   disappeared
 Let us not remember the first smell of rain. 
 Instead, let us speak of our lives now— 
   the gates and bridges and stores. 
And when we break bread 
   in cafés and at kitchen tables 
         with our new brothers, 
  let us not burden them with stories 
      of war or abandonment. 
Let us not name our old friends 
   who are unravelling like fairy tales 
   in the forests of the dead. 
 Naming them will not bring them back. 
Let us stay here, and wait for the future 
  to arrive, for grandchildren to speak 
   in forked tongues about the country 
         we once came from. 
Tell us about it, they might ask. 
 And you might consider telling them 
    of the sky and the coffee beans, 
    the small white houses and dusty streets. 
 You might set your memory afloat 
    like a paper boat down a river. 
You might pray that the paper 
      whispers your story to the water, 
     that the water sings it to the trees, 
    that the trees howl and howl 
    it to the leaves. If you keep still 
   and do not speak, you might hear 
         your whole life fill the world 
             until the wind is the only word.

                                                                                by Tishani Doshi

 

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TRANSLITERATION VARIANTS           by James Hannum

 

There are usually more than one accepted transliteration of a word or name, from the Russian and Ukrainian alphabets into the Roman (English) alphabet.  Examples:

 

Леся  = Lesya or Lesia

Михайло = Mykhailo or Myhailo

Ольга = Olga or Olha

Цар = Tsar, Tzar, or Czar

 

     Russians and Ukrainians use any of the above spellings, depending on their personal preferences; each is an accepted transliteration into English from the Russian or Ukrainian spelling.  The reason for this is that the Cyrillic and Roman alphabets do not correspond well in their sounds.  That is, both alphabets have many sounds that do not really exist in the other, so there are more than one accepted way to transliterate a word.   The sound "zh" does not exist in the English language, for example, and is written in the Cyrillic alphabets of Russian and Ukrainian as an "x" with a vertical line through the middle.

 

     Here is an example, from an analysis we did in a recent case: 

 

TZEREDYAKIVA-Nek.-u.-Schwester-Nadya-1923.jpgWhen Nekhemiya ___________ signed her name to the 14 August 1926 letter, it appears that she merely copied the spelling as it was printed in Ukrainian on the signature line.  When the clerk typed this letter, he spelled her name just as it is spelled on her appostiled ZAGS records.  He did not type it as she had spelled it herself on the earlier letters, perhaps because of his own personal preference against mixing alphabets.  Nekhemiya of course had the right to sign her name (make her mark) in any way she chose.  In the 1927 letter, where there was nothing for her to copy, she chose to write it with mixed alphabet and transliteration (spelling) that did not match the ZAGS documents, but who is to say she is wrong in this?  There is more than one accepted way to transliterate (spell) her name. 

 

Holtzsheibe.jpg     Lets look at the alphabetic letters Nekhemiya used to sign her name in the 1927 letter.  The letter "J" does not exist in the Russian and Ukrainian alphabets.  It is a Polish letter, corresponding in sound fairly closely to the Roman "Y."  The next letter she wrote is a Y, pronounced in Russian and Ukrainian as the letters oo in the English word "food."  The other letters in her signature are the same as her 1926 signature, until you get to the second to last letter, which looks like a lower case b and an upper case I.  These look like two letters, but in the Russian alphabet they are one letter, pronounced like no sound in the English language, but sounding like a cross between an "I" and a "U."  In the first document she uses this Russian letter, but in the second document, the distribution letter, she copies our transliteration and uses the "backward N," on of the Russian "I" letters.

 

  Nekhemiya wrote of her childhood during the end of the czar (tsar) Nicholas II reign.  As you know, the big trouble began in 1905 in the old Russian Empire (Ukraine was in said empire), with the first failed revolution, which was followed by years of bloody reprisals, economic devastation, and fighting between Reds and Whites, which was heaviest in the years following the "Russian Revolution of 1917," but continued with enough violence and uncertain outcome to continue the chaos in the life and law of the people until the mid-1920's. 

 

Bauernhofhilfsmittel.jpg     Nekhemiya was born in Ukraine (then Poland, Russian Empire) in 1911, and so her entire school years were spent more concerned with finding enough food and personal safety to survive, than with formal education.  Most of the western half of Ukraine, including the entire region where Nekhemiya was born, was Poland until the year 1945.  Nekhemiya therefore learnt what little reading and writing she could pick up in both Polish and Ukrainian, as well as Russian.  As Lesya and I saw in a handwritten short note she once sent us, her spelling abilities in her native language are extremely bad.   There were four or five spelling mistakes on each line, and she mixes her alphabets 

 

   School learning was particularly difficult during the first half of the 20th century for the Jews.  Nekhemiya is a diminutive variant of the feminine given name Nekhomo, found in the book Russian-Jewish Given Names (1998) by Boris Feldblyum, Pg. 64:  "Nekhomo... Nakha, Nakhe, Nekhamka, Nakhama, etc."  We will need to introduce more acceptable evidence of all the above if this case does not settle and goes to trial.

 

     My own name HANNUM caused me problems when I married my wife Lesya BRANOVSKA.  I had to show a copy of my Belarussian work permit, in which the Belarussians had transliterated the Roman "H" in my name to the Russian letter “Г” corresponding to the Roman "G."  This is a commonly used transliteration, as for example, most Russian and Ukrainian books spell the name HITLER with this "G" letter:  Adolf GITLER... there is simply no H in their alphabets! 

 

Herrlich-wiederaufbau-.jpg   Additionally, the Belarussians (who mostly speak only Russian today, not Belarussian, due to the USSR years), transliterated the "A" in HANNUM to a Cyrillic (Russian) "A," but the Regional ZAGS director handling our marriage application insisted that HANNUM should be transliterated onto the Ukrainian marriage application and certificate with the Ukrainian "E."  Neither the A nor the E have the exact right sound, so it was a tossup... but the ZAGS director was adamant, and claimed that there was no proof I was the same person as on the work permit.  Finally we convinced her on every point of the name except the double "N."  In Ukrainian, double Ns are pronounced twice, with an audible syllible break between them.  She insisted that the Belarusian divorce document containing a single N was a different name, and we had to spend three hours getting a new translation and notarisation of my passport, this time with a single N:  GANEM (ГАНЕМ)!

 

  

____________________________________________________________

Royal-Berkshire-Hospital--Reading--England.jpgEEH has many times obtained access to "private" and "no longer extant" hospital, institution, and orphanage records.  These records are important because they usually contain the names and addresses of next of kin.  Pictured here is Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading, Berkshire, Eng.

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JEWISH CULTURE
              

Click the triangle in the above video to hear the harmony of the Barry Sisters in tribute to Franz Kafka, in Yiddish and then in English.  During his lifetime, Franz Kafka burned an estimated 90 percent of his work.  After his death at age 41, in 1924, a letter was discovered in his desk in Prague, addressed to his friend Max Brod.  “Dearest Max,” it began.  “My last request:  Everything I leave behind me . . . in the way of diaries, manuscripts, letters (my own and others’), sketches and so on, to be burned unread.”  Less than two months later, Brod, disregarding Kafka’s request, signed an agreement to prepare a posthumous edition of Kafka’s unpublished novels.  “The Trial” came out in 1925, followed by “The Castle” (1926) and “Amerika” (1927).  In 1939, carrying a suitcase stuffed with Kafka’s papers, Brod set out for Palestine on the last train to leave Prague, five minutes before the Nazis closed the Czech border.  Thanks largely to Brod’s efforts, Kafka’s slim, enigmatic corpus was gradually recognized as one of the great monuments of 20th-century literature.
_____________________________________________
                     
Wiener Opfer    Wiener Skulptur













Wiener Staatsoper        Vienna        Wiener Skulptur         

__________________________________________________

 
 

Moise Kisling (above) was born 22 Jan 1891 to a Jewish family in Craców, Austria-Hungary. In the 1890s artists coming to Paris began to settle in Le Bateau Lavoir, a commune in the Montmartre area where small studios were rented. It became a haven for Fauvists and Cubists. Starting from the 1900s André Derain, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Max Jacob, Juan Gris, Kees van Dongen and other artists lived there.  Such was the milieu in which Moise Kisling found himself when he came to Paris in 1910 with a letter of recommendation to Sholom Ash, a well-known Jewish writer who managed to help the young artist. 

Kisling later decided to settle in Montparnasse. He rented a studio at 3 Rue Joseph Bara, where he lived for 27 years. According to a contemporary, Kisling was “the axis around which everything rotated at Montmartre”. His artistry manifested itself in everything. 

Kisling emerged as a famous artist who sold well. He always worked hard. Unlike other artists, he had a strictly regulated working day, which began at 9 o’clock in the morning when models came to sit, had a break for lunch, which he had together with his friends at La Rotonde, Le Dôme or La Coupole, then back to work and more meetings with friends, now at dinner in the evening. Famous model Kiki sat for some of his pictures. She found it hard to stick to Kisling’s strict routine and was invariably excused – after all, theirs were friendly rather than business relations.

________________________________________________ 

 

London-Ankunft-Judische-Fluchtlinge-1939-copy-2.jpg     9391 לאָנדאָן אָנקומען פון אידישע רעפוגעעס פעברואר
    London Ankunft der jüdischen Flüchtlinge Feb 1939
     London arrival of Jewish refugees Feb 1939

 
Junge Hände hoh
יינגל מיט הענט אַרויף, נאַציס מיט גאַנז
Boy with hands up, from Nazis with guns
 

Osteuropaischen-Ghetto-Karte-1941-1942.gif    געטא מאַפּע      Ghetto Map

 

Nürnberg Trials, 1946                          Nuremberg Trials           1946           Nürnberger Prozesse

 

JCC Manhattan  Katz's Deli, Lower East Side Manhattan


 Jewish 
Community 
Center, 

Manhattan

 

Milton Berle Milton Berle

 

 

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              Ariel-Quartet-copy-1.jpg
 
The
        Ariel
              Quartet

 

Formed in Israel, the Ariel Quartet (below) moved to the United States in 2004 to continue its professional studies.  The resident ensemble in the New England Conservatory’s prestigious Professional String Quartet Training Program through their graduation in 2010, the Ariel has won a number of international prizes, including the Grand Prize at the 2006 Fischoff National Chamber Music Competition.  After they won the Székely Prize for their performance of Bartók, as well as the overall Third Prize at the Banff International String Quartet Competition in 2007, the American Record Guide described the Ariel Quartet as “a consummate ensemble gifted with utter musicality and remarkable interpretive power” and called their performance of Beethoven’s Op. 132 “the pinnacle of the competition.”

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אייראפעישער עמיגראַנט העריטאַגע

Europäische Auswanderer Erbe

European Emigrant Heritage

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To enlarge the text of this website, in the upper right corner of your screen click options-symbol---frilled-washer.jpgwrench-copy-2.jpg, or , [click View,] and Zoom to 150%.  The CONTENTS list on the right side of this page has links to the other pages of this website.  After you have zoomed to 150%, to view CONTENTS list you will have to drag the long bar at the bottom of the screen from left to right. 

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 Оленка   Each of the millions of emigrantions from Europe is its own dramatic story; these are stories of sadness and joy, of loss and discovery... of all that was left behind, and all that awaited, startled, and trans-formed.  Each emigrant's new life in USA, Latin America, Australia, etc., from the day of his/her arrival, altered each of them forever.  For the languages, cultures, customs, and materials of their new homes differed greatly from that they had known in the "Old Country."

The-Registry-Desk-at-Ellis-Island--1916.jpg

     This page contains part of the story of one 2nd generation Russia to NYC (New York City) immigrant Annie Cohen, a tale told by her nephew who learned of her existence and much more, 30 years after her death.   Annie's existence had been kept secret by her parents and sister for 71 years, since the date she was sent away and hidden.  During that 71 years, Annie, those that hid her, and those who cared for her, all died.  So this is a story of discovery, and it begins in 1995.  [The book is entitled Annie's Ghosts, by Steve Luxenberg (2009 Hyperion Press, Nonfiction, incl. footnote pgs 365-387)]

Excerpts

1972 COHEN Annie burialPg. 15-  [an unnamed overseer at the Michigan Department of Community Health]:  "I get dozens of calls a month from people just like you... family members who have just discovered that they have a relative they never knew about...  State law doesn't let me tell them anything... "  Mr. Luxenberg, the author:  "But she's been dead thirty years... I'm her next of kin."  Overseer:  "That doesn't matter.  You'll need a court order."  Mr. Luxenberg is persistent through 400Radziwillow-2 by LUXENBERG Steve pages though, successfully "pursuing the secret that would ultimately lead me back to the beginning of the 20th century, through Ellis Island to the crowded streets of Detroit's... immigrant communities, through the spectacular boom of the auto industry's early years and the crushing bust of the Depression, through the wartime revival that transformd the cityRadziwillow, Ukraine by LUXENBERG Steve into the nation's Arsenal of Democracy, through the Holocaust that brought a relative to Detroit and into my mother's secret, through the postwar exodus that robbed the city's old neighborhoods of both population and prosperity."

Read more here:  First Pages of Annie's Ghosts

     EEH heartily recommends this well researched and engaging book.

    Wherever you live in the world, you are likely to have emigrants who left Europe on your family tree.  European Emigrant Heritage (EEH) stands ready to facilitate your securing the heritage of your family's past.

Ethnic Map NYC 1919 - 1, Key

These map sections (not from Mr. Luxenberg's book) show the ethnic communities of Manhattan, NYC in 1919.  The below section shows the parts of NYC's Lower East Side in red where Mr. Luxenberg's family lived during the first half of the 20th century (1900-1950).

Ethnic Map NYC 1919 - 4, S Manhattan

 

 

Memory  from the Broadway musical "Cats" 1981
______________________________________
 
The Recently Departed
 
       One need not delve past the "Great War" (1914-1918) to make a living in asset genealogy.  The brothers Steven & Christopher Smyrl, legal genea-logists, have made a great concern working on cases given them by local solicitors.  The brothers are shown below researching the case of a woman who died in 1999 never having married.  Steven is the author of Irish Metho- dists - Where Do I Start?, which is the first in the series ‘Exploring Irish Genealogy,’ published by the Council of Irish Genealogical Organisations.  EEH researchers often refer to Steven's book.
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  Pottery the Old Way

         The effect of modern technology on Europe's many diverse cultures is unfortunately negative.  Though electrically-powered wheels are common today, many potters still prefer to throw on a human-powered wheel. Whether chosen for aesthetic purposes, out of a sense of traditionalism, or simply for exercise, these human-powered designs usually incorporate a heavy flywheel which is brought up to speed, and kept there, by the operator’s leg muscles. The simplest “kickwheel” is exactly that: the flywheel turns below the seated potter’s feet and is kept in motion by repeatedly kicking its surface.

 

       Named for Potter-s-kickwheel.jpgstudio potter Bernard Leach, the Leach treadle wheel was in fact de- signed by his sons.  Bern- ard’s grandson Simon is a renowned studio potter and teacher, still uses and promotes the treadle wheel design. They are expensive to buy, but the plans and designs are widely known and shared.

 leach-treadlewheel-pottery-blueprint-scan-copy-1.jpg    This set of scanned, hand-drawn plans hosted on a Duke University server is mentioned favorably in DIY wheel threads on several online pottery forums.


       Potter Lloyd Cledwyn hosts a site dedicated to the Leach treadle wheel, including photos of an original wheel, a high resolution scan of some early blueprints, and some nice original assembly illustrations.


       Simon Leach himself has published a large photo gallery meticulously documenting the construction of his newly-commissioned treadle wheels. Simon’s YouTube channel is also a great source of information, and features several clips detailing the assembly, history, and operation of the Leach wheel.


       Plenty of information is available, between and among the various other online resources, for potters who want to build a Leach wheel for themselves. 

bowl.jpg

  Bowl--ebony-black-and-gold-lotus-scroll-6-inch.jpg

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Ukrainisch Tanze-copy-1Ukrainian folk dance originated as a male dance among the Zaporozhian Cossaks but later danced by couples, male soloists, and mixed groups of dancers.  In western Ukraine, as the hopak-kolo, it is danced in a closed circle.  The hopak has no fixed pattern of steps.  Men competitively improvise steps, high leaps, squatting kicks, and turns; women dance simple steps, sway, clap, or circle.  Click to watch dancing:  

Austrian dancing:   

 

South Tyrolian, Italy:                          

  _____________________________________________ 

 

PRIMACHENKO-Maria.jpg

 

 

 

cross-stitch-embroidery-ukrainian-style-design-elem-copy-4.jpg

  Born in 1908 in the village of Bolotnya
was a Ukrainian woman who painted in the traditional Ukrainian style, with her own touches of imagination. 

Her fellow villagers made jokes about her paintings,

but one day fame and recognition came to 

Maria Primachenko       

seagulls-in-the-boat-1965-by-M-PRIMACHENKO-copy-1.jpg

seagulls in a boat

                      

shchur-na-dorozi.jpg

  a rat on the road 

 

    Maria painted in traditional Ukrainian style...    

people-live-under-storks-beautiful-house-----------.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                        girl playing and waiting for boyfriend 


                           ...her paintings entered the national culture. 

 

old-man-and-old-woman-carry-a-turnip-1983-by-M-PRIMACHENKO.jpg

              old man and old woman carry a turnip

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Ireland

Here is an account of the Irish in America, written in 1886:

BBC-interviews-milkmaid-circa-1946.jpgI met several people from Cork, and they were overjoyed to meet me, who could tell them the history of the beautiful citie for the last generation. To some I spoke the Irish language and their delight was inconceivable. I may here remark that wherever I go I find the love of Ireland amongst the Irish to be the most intense feeling of their souls – an all-absorbing passion, running like a silver thread through all their thoughts and emotions. They think forever of the old land, and sigh to behold it once more before they die. One man who  drove us one day for an hour refused to take any payment. He was    from Ireland and we were two Irish priests, and that was enough for him!

“What part of Ireland do you come from?” I asked. “From Wicklow, sir; I am 32 years in the country. “And do you ever think of the old country?” “Think,” he exclaimed, “Oh! yes sir, I do think of the old country, not so much by day as by night. In my dreams at night I see as distinctly as ever the lanes and alleys where I played when a boy. I fancy I am at home once more, but I awake and find I am in Montreal, and am like never to see my native land again.”

This dreaming of Ireland I found quite common, many people would 
give a
ll they have in the world to get back again and live in Ireland steeped in poverty, rather than flourish wealthy in this strange land. And what is stranger still is, that amongst the young people, those love Ireland most who are born here of Irish parents. Their love is far more intense than the love of those who were born in Ireland. Philosophers must account for this; it appears to me to be a transmitted passion; they hear their parents constantly speak in terms of affection of the land of their birth.’ 

Rev. M. B. Buckley, Diary of a Tour in America, Edited by his sister Kate Buckley, (Dublin: Sealy, Bryers & Walker, 1886), pp. 50-1.

ár rothar d'aois       market-square-1950s.jpg

 

 

 


 

 

European Emigrant Heritage     

Irish Emigration

Ireland is one of the smaller European countries, but due to large numbers of children per family and hard times, huge numbers of emigrants left its shores for the US and other countries.  Many years before the above pictue was taken, and also many years before the above article was written by Reverend Buckley, Irish were forced to emigrate from their beloved homeland in greater numbers than ever before or since.  This period is known as THE IRISH POTATO FAMINE. When the English conquered and occupied Ireland they gave all the rich bottomland farm land to English & Scottish people who came over to Ireland and occupied it in big estates, and became the ruling class, the financial elite of their days.  They were all protestants and they made many laws discriminating against the conquered Irish, who were  Catholics, similarly to what the English and Dutch did to the Black tribesmen in South Africa.  That is what imperialism does, that is its purpose, to steal and exploit.

       The Irish were thus forced up into the hills and mountains, onto small rocky & infertile plots, where they had little option but to grow only potatoes.  Other crops such as carrots, cabbage, beets etc, and meat, all of which were staples throughout Europe and which the British overlords in Ireland consumed by the ton, take too many square feet to grow compared to the amount of calories they contain.  Only the potato, which thrives in the rocky soil and cool summer clouds & fogs & frequent rains of Ireland's hills & highlands, could produce enough calories to feed the Catholic Irish families (each of which had approx. 8 children).    So when the blight suddenly struck 1841-45 and most of the potatoes were destroyed, thousands begin dying of starvation, and from diseases common to the malnourished.  

       One or two London newspapers and members of Parliament spoke up, saying that England (not to mention that English imperial conquest was responsible for the potato famine) England should send food to the Irish to help them.  These few voices were ignored.  No aid was given the conquered Irish.  Throughout the five year famine the native population of Ireland fell from about 9 million to less than 5 million, mostly from deaths, but many from emigratio
n to the Americas, Australia, etc.  

       Throughout the Irish Potato Famine the affluent Protestant British plantation operators and absentee landlords continued to export ₤Millions of Irish raised beef, lamb, wool, & corn.  Again, this is the purpose of imperialism.  Just as it is in today's "third world" countries ruled by western puppet governments who allow privitization of communal farm lands (the "peasants" never have any deeds, they have just lived and farmed these plots for centuries), big corporate mines, plantations, and sweat shop factories, deforestation and other environmental devastation, and the destruction and replacement of milleniums-old cultures for the sake of profits to distant corporation owners.     


       Almost half of EEH's Irish research cases have been dominated by emigrations between 1840 and 1860, caused by that famine, its economic aftermath, and by fear of the famine's recurrence.  Before listening to the below passionate and beautiful ballad Skibbereen and reading the poem The Exodus which rose out of those times, please read this analysis so that you may understand them better:
jobs.timeshighereducation.co.uk/comments.asp?storycode=412487
 

 Old Skibbereen (an Irish ballad)  
by Patrick Carpenter - 1889

 

Oh father dear, I oft-times hear you speak of Erin's isle
Her lofty hills, her valleys green, her mountains rude and wild
They say she is a lovely land wherein a saint might dwell
So why did you abandon her, the reason to me tell.

Oh son, I loved my native land with energy and pride
Till a blight came o'er the praties; my sheep, my cattle died
My rent and taxes went unpaid, I could not them redeem
And that's the cruel reason why I left old Skibbereen.

Oh well do I remember that bleak December day
The landlord and the sheriff came to take us all away
They set my roof on fire with their cursed English spleen
I heaved a sigh and bade goodbye to dear old Skibbereen.

Your mother too, God rest her soul, fell on the stony ground
She fainted in her anguish seeing desolation 'round
She never rose but passed away from life to immortal dream
She found a quiet grave, me boy, in dear old Skibbereen.

And you were only two years old and feeble was your frame
I could not leave you with my friends for you bore your father's name
I wrapped you in my cóta mór in the dead of night unseen
I heaved a sigh and bade goodbye to dear old Skibbereen.

Oh father dear, the day will come when in answer to the call
All Irish men of freedom stern will rally one and all
I'll be the man to lead the band beneath the flag of green
And loud and clear we'll raise the cheer, Revenge for Skibbereen!

arrow blue down

 

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EU Diktatur - Cultural Diversity Requires Independa-copy-1          Disban the EU 
                              by James Hannum

     EEH, long an opponent of the EU (European Union), in 2004 created the maxim "CULTURAL DIVERSITY REQUIRES INDEPENDENT ECONOMIES."  In the US the phrase "cultural diversity" is misused to mean the melting pot of emigrant cultures.  Melting pots melt their contents all together into grey slag; they rapidly assimilate and destroy the individual emigrant cultures, within one or two generations replacing them with the dominant monoculture.  For example, tens of millions of Americans today are of German descent, yet very few of them know much about German culture.  They have lost the language, literature, folklore, art, dance, woodcraft, history, and the thousand other things that their German ancestors brought to America.  Their immigrant [grand]parents adhered to German culture, but their descendants were Americanized.    

       The phrase "cultural diversity" in the above blue poster refers to the independent and diverse cultures of Europe (French, Dutch, Polish etc.) which are being systematically destroyed by the EU.  Culture is the glue which holds all true communities together.  Communities don't need global corporations and banks, "big box" stores, and 8-lane inter-provincial carriageways jammed with 18-wheel lorries hauling produce and goods hundreds of miles from cheaper foreign sweatshops and corporate plantations.  The EU and its masters, the globalists- financial elites, in order to increase their personal already gigantic incomes, must destroy and replace Europe's local communities, independent local economies, and the non-corporate farms, shops, craftsmen, and other businesses, which have done quite well all these centuries without globalization.  The EU's policy of cultural and economic homogenization is very bad for the people and sovereign countries of Europe.  

       In 2016 millions of Europeans began speaking out in anger, protesting against the EU policies.  Especially rankling was the EU forcing their countries to accept large numbers of "war refugees" from the Middle East.  First of all, it is the US and the EU that are the aggressors in the Middle East.  The people of Europe don't want those imperialistic oil wars, which make $Trillions in profit for Lockheed Martin, Boeing, etc.  When the US & EU conquered Iraq and Libya the US and EU people didn't receive any of the conquered oil, it was all stolen by the financial elites, who then sold it to the people, for a higher price per gallon than Iraq and Libya had been selling it.  

       Carpet bombing, invasion, and occupation causes "terrorists," i.e., those whose family members or spouses have been mass murdered by the US & EU military naturally want revenge and to expel the US & EU by force.  Second of all, only a small fraction of the "war refugees" are women, children, or older people, i.e., the people you would expect to be refugees.  In wartime all the young men are in the armies, either the national army or the "rebel" arm(ies) run by the US.  They are busy fighting and cannot emigrate.  It is the civilian population of women, children, and elderly, whom the young men send out of the country to protect them.  But that is not the case here.  The vast majority of the "war refugees" from the Middle East are healthy young men.  They come to Europe for higher paying jobs and for governmental benefits.  Later after they have established themselves they may send for their families.  

       This is how emigration has always been done.  The young men come first and bring their wife, children, siblings, cousins over as soon as they are able.  That's how America, Australia, and every other country has been populated by immigrants throughout history.  Europeans are increasingly realizing that the EU emigration policy, which the EU claims is for humanitarian reasons, is actually designed to aid in the continuing destruction of their diverse cultures and independent economies.  This is the reason why in 2016 the UK voted to exit the EU.  Hopefully other countries will soon follow the UK's example.

       If the EU were really humanitarian they would stop obediently aiding the United States in its imperialistic dronings, carpet bombings, helicopter gunship strafings, and bayonettings in the Middle East.  The word "Globalization" is an euphemism for imperialism.  GLOBALIZATION DESTROYS ALL CULTURES  

 

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Deutsche Demokratische Republik [DDR]
[East Germany]

 

Undivided Germany, 1945:  

Frankfurt-Zweite-Weltkreig-Ruinen.jpg


Communist East Germany, 1949 - 1990:
 
 

       In East Germany the state owned all land, factories, shops, houses, etc.  It wasn’t every man for himself, as it is now in the world. There was a strong feeling of camaraderie and collective identity. One knew one’s neighbors and would often help each other.  It was said that one's friends were true friends who could be counted on to help in all situations.  They were not shallow or fair weather friends.  If shoes became available at a Berlin shop cross town, one woman who worked in say a brick factory would somehow get off work, take the tram and buy a pair for every woman working in the brick factory.  Shoes were not often available in stores.  The people of East Germany hadn't much money and gadgets; this brought them together and they helped each other in ever so many ways.  

       There wasn't much television, and there were certainly no computers, internet, or smart phones.  These modern inventions divide people from each other.  Today a person may have 1,000 "friends" on FaceBook, but will not even know the names of people living in his apartment building, much less know who is getting married, who is sick, and who has that large pipe wrench everyone uses.  The Deutsche (German) Demokratische Republik (the DDR) had true communities where people lived together rather than in proud isolation.  

       The DDR lifestyle was destroyed by money-first, business-über-alles neo-liberalism when the Berlin Wall fell in 1989.  Capitalistic competition and materialism divide people from each other.  In East Germany people lived in small cozy apartments, several families sharing the same kitchen and bathroom, often three generations of a family living together.  Almost no one had a car, which made the cities and towns much quieter, better air, and safer to walk in.  Cars isolate the people from each other, but pedestrian E. Germans knew their neighbors because they would always meet while walking on the streets.
 

 

















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The USSR
[Section under construction]

The 1917 Russian Revolution against the Tsar ended centuries of oppression by the wealthy nobility.  Those who had spoken out against the Tsar had been exiled to Siberia.  The poet Pushkin was one such, resulting in his 19___ poem:
 

 Во глубине сибирских руд                Deep in the Siberian mines

      Храните гордое терпенье,                Keep your patience proud:     

Не пропадет ваш скорбный труд     The bitter toil shall not be lost,

И дум высокое стремленье.            The rebel thought unbowed.   

   Оковы тяжкие падут,                  The heavy hanging chains shall fall,

Темницы рухнут - и свобода           The walls will crumble at a word

 Вас примет радостно у входа,    And freedom greet you in the light,

И братья меч вам отдадут!       And brothers give you back the sword!

                     --Пушкин                                          -- Pushkin

 

 


 

 

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